1. General Model Information
Name: CCSR/NIES Atmospheric General Circulation Model
Main medium: all
Main subject: meteorology, hydrology
Organization level: Ecosphere
Type of model: partial differential equations (finite elements,3D)
Keywords: climate change, atmosphere, global circulation
Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics
Atmospheric Environment Division,
Natiotnal Institute for Environmental Studies
16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305, JAPAN
Atusi Numaguiti (National Institute for Environmental Studies)
Masaaki Takahashi, Teruyuki Nakajima, Akimasa Sumi (Center for Climate System Research, University of Tokyo)
An atmospheric general circulation model for climate studies (CCSR/NIES
AGCM) is developed. The model uses spectral transformation method in horizontal
and grid differentiation on sigma coordinate in vertical. The physical
parameterization includes a sophisticated radiation scheme with two-stream
k-distribution method, simplified Arakawa-Schubert cumulus scheme, prognostics
of cloud water scheme, turbulence closure scheme with cloud effect, orographic
gravity wave drag, and a simple land-surface submodel. The model also includes
plug-in compatible alternative physical parameterization schemes and a slab
mixed-layer ocean as optional modules.
II. Technical Information
III. Mathematical Information
Arakawa, A. and W.H. Schubert, 1974: Interactions of cumulus cloud ensemble with the large-scale environment. Part I. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 671-701.
Arakawa A., Suarez M.J., 1983: Vertical differencing of the primitive equations in sigma coodinates. Mon. Weather Rev., 111, 34-45.
Bourke, W., 1988: Spectral methods in global climate and weather prediction models. in Physically-Based Modelling and Simulation of Climate and Climatic Change. Part I., 169-220., Kluwer.
Haltiner, G.J. and R.T. Williams, 1980: Numerical Prediction and Dynamic Meteorology (2nd ed.), John Wiley & Sons, 477pp.
Le Treut H. and Z.-X. Li, 1991: Sensitivity of an atmospheric general circulation model to prescribed SST changes: feedback effects associated with the simulation of cloud optical properties. Climate Dynamics, 5, 175-187.
Louis, J., 1979: A parametric model of vertical eddy fluxes in the atmosphere. Bound. Layer Meteor., 17, 187-202.
Manabe, S., J. Smagorinsky and R.F. Strickler, 1965: Simulated climatology of a general circulation model with a hydrologic cycle. Mon. Weather Rev. , 93, 769-798.
Matthews, E., 1983: Global Vegetation and Land Use: New High-Resolution Data Bases for Climate Studies. J. Clim. Appl. Meteor., 22, 474-487.
McFarlane, N. A., 1987: The effect of orographically excited wave drag on the general circulation of the lower stratosphere and troposphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 1775-1800.
Mellor, G.L. and T. Yamada, 1974: A hierarchy of turbulence closure models for planetary boundary layers. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 1791-1806.
Mellor, G.L. and T. Yamada, 1982: Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problems. Rev. Geophys Atmos. Phys., 20, 851-875.
Miller, M.J., A.C.M. Beljaars and T.N. Palmer, 1992: The sensitivity of the ECMWF model to the parameterization of evaporation from the tropical oceans. J. Climate, 5, 418-434.
Moorthi S. and M.J. Suarez, 1992: Relaxed Arakawa-Scubert: A parameterization of moist convection for general circulation models. Mon. Weather Rev., 120 978-1002.
Nakajima T. and M. Tanaka, 1986: Matrix formulation for the transfer of solar radiation in a plane-parallel scattering atmosphere. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 35, 13-21.
Numaguti, A. 1993: Dynamics and energy balance of the Hadley circulation and the tropical precipitation zones: Significance of the distribution of evaporation. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 1874-1887.
Takahashi, M., N. Zhao, and T. Kumakura,1997: Equatorial waves in a general circulation model simulating a quasi biennial oscillation, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 75, 529-540, 1997. Takigawa, M., M. Takahashi, and H. Akiyoshi, 1999: Simulation of ozone and other chemical species using a CCSR/NIES AGCM with coupled stratospheric chemistry, J. Geophys. Res., 14003-14018,1999. Takahashi, M.,1999: Simulation of the quasi-biennial oscillation in a general circulation model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1307-1310, 1999. Sato, N., and M. Takahashi,1999: The interdiurnal variation of summer cumulus convection over the Kanto plain in Japan, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 77, 1199-1220, 1999.
V. Further information in the World-Wide-Web
VI. Additional remarks
Information and remarks about the application of this model
Last review of this document by: T. Gabele, Tue Oct 7 1997
Status of the document:
last modified by
Tobias Gabele Wed Aug 21 21:44:39 CEST 2002