1. General Model Information

Name: Agricultural NItrogen MOdel

Acronym: ANIMO

Main medium: terrestrial
Main subject: biogeochemistry, hydrology
Organization level: ecosystem
Type of model: ordinary differential equations
Main application: research
Keywords: carbon, nitrogen cycle, phosphorus cycle, leaching, runoff, mineralisation, immobilization, crop uptake, denitrification, nitrification, desorption, adsorption, soil complex


Ing. J.G. Kroes
DLO Winand Staring Centre (SC-DLO)
Dept. Soil and Water Research
P.O.Box 125
6700 AC Wageningen

Phone: +31.317.474372
Fax: +31.317.424812
email: j.g.kroes@sc.agro.nl


J.G. Kroes


ANIMO dynamically simulates the carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in unsaturated and saturated soil systems. The model was developed to analyse the leaching of nitrogen from the soil surface to groundwater and surface waters. Optional simulation of the phosphorus cycle has been added to the model. Hydrological data must be supplied by another model.

The model system is a multi-layer one-dimensional soil column. The upper boundary is the soil surface, the lower boundary is the depth of the local groundwater flow and the lateral boundary is defined by the surface water system(s). Main processes included in the model are: mineralization and immobilization, crop uptake, denitrification related to (partial and temporal) anaerobiosis and decomposing organic materials, oxygen and temperature distribution in the soil, nitrification, desorption and adsorption of ammonium and phosphorus to the soil complex, runoff, discharge to different surface water systems and leaching to groundwater.

Rate variables: oxygen demand, exudate production, decompositoin rates of four types of organic matter, nitrification rate, sorption rates for ammonium and phosphorus, fourteen water fluxes (precipitation, runoff, seepage, leaching, first-, second- and third-order drainage and infiltration, three evaporation terms, transpiration)

State variables: moisture contents, quantities of exudates, humus, fresh and soluble organic matter, adsorbed ammonium and phosphorus, nitrate, ammonium and phosphate in soil solution


II. Technical Information

II.1 Executables:

Operating System(s): VAX, IBM compatible PC with coprocessor

II.2 Source-code:

Programming Language(s): FORTRAN-77

II.3 Manuals:

II.4 Data:

III. Mathematical Information

III.1 Mathematics

III.2 Quantities

III.2.1 Input

an extended soil water balance, fertilizer management (amount, kind of fertilizer, time and depth of application), soil physical properties (pF, bulk density, five temperature parameters, diffusion coefficients for oxygen in soil), soil chemical properties (pH, sorption coefficients, sorption rates), boundary and initial conditions

Number of input data:
about 80

III.2.2 Output

all terms of complete balances of a soil-water-crop system for water, nitrate-N, ammonium-N, organic-N, ortho-P, organic-P

Number of output data:
variable (over 1000)

Simulation interval:
1-30 days

Basic unit of surface area:
1 m2

IV. References

Kroes, J.G. and J. Roelsma 1998: ANIMO 3.5; user's guide for the ANIMO version 3.5 nutrient leaching model. Wageningen, SC-DLO, 1998. Techn. Doc. 46, 98 pp.

Rijtema, P.E. & J.G. Kroes, 1991: Some results of nitrogen simulations with the model ANIMO. Fertilizer Research 27: 189-198
Vereecken, H., E.J. Jansen, M.J.D. Hack-ten Broecke, M. Swerts, R. Engelke, S. Fabrewitz & S. Hansen, 1991: Comparison of simulation results of five nitrogen models using different datasets. In: Soil and Groundwater Research Report II, Nitrate in Soils, Final report of contracts EV4V-0098- NL and EV4V-00107-C, Commission of the European Communities.
Rijtema, P.E., P. Groenendijk, J.G. Kroes & C.W.J. Roest, 1991: Formulation of the nitrogen and phosphorus behaviour in agricultural soils, the ANIMO model. Report 30 . The Winand Staring Centre, Wageningen.
Kroes, J.G., 1993: ANIMO Version 3.3. User's Guide. Interne mededeling 102, The Winand Staring Centre, Wageningen.
Kroes, J.G., 1993: ANIMO Version 3.3. Programmer's Guide. Interne mededeling 103, The Winand Staring Centre, Wageningen.

V. Further information in the World-Wide-Web

VI. Additional remarks

Last review of this document by: J. Bierwirth: Nov 7 2000 -
Status of the document:
last modified by Tobias Gabele Wed Aug 21 21:44:39 CEST 2002

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