1. General Model Information
Name: Biogeochemical Lake Model
Main medium: aquatic
Main subject: hydrology, biogeochemistry
Organization level: Ecosystem
Type of model: partial differential equations (1D)
Main application: research
Keywords: eutrophication, lake, hydrodynamic model, algal growth, limnology, water quality, nitrogen, phosphorus
SMHI Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute,
SE-601 76 Norrköping,
Phone: +46 (0) 11 495 8385
Fax: +46 (0) 11 495 8573
at home page: go to research, hydrology
The biogeochemical lake model, BIOLA, was developed at SMHI for eutrophication studies in Sweden. The model is a one-dimensional (vertical) model that simulates temperature stratification and water quality influenced by weather, inflow and biogeochemical processes in the lake and in the sediments. The central variables simulated are inorganic nutrients and phytoplankton. It may simulate the biogeochemical effects in a lake from a changed environment. The changes may be eutrophication remedy actions, thus when considering different management actions BIOLA may contribute with valuable information.
The model is a biogeochemical lake module coupled to a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The model simulates the continuous change of lake stratification and water quality due to weather, inflow, outflow and biogeochemical processes in the lake and in the sediments. It simulates changes over time in nutrient and biological state at different depths. The most important variables simulated by the model are inorganic nutrients and phytoplankton in the water. Other variables include nutrients and organic matter in the sediments.
II. Technical Information
Operating System(s): DOS
Programming Language(s): Fortran 77
BIOLA - Biogeochemical Lake Model - Manual SMHI, SE-601 76 Norrköping, Sweden
SMHI, SE-601 76 Norrköping, Sweden
III. Mathematical Information
- dissolved inorganic nitrogen,
- phosphate, oxygen,
- planktivorous fish,
- piscivorous fish,
- sediment organic matter,
- phosphate in sediment,
- ammonium in sediment and
- nitrate in sediment
- upper boundary condition for momentum and heat,
- extinktion coefficient or Secchi depth,
- short-wave radiation,
- nutrient and
- possibly organic matter supply (e.g. inflow, atmospheric deposition, point sources)
daily concentration of state variables and temperature, vertical profiles
Pers, B.C. (2002). Model description of BIOLA - a biogeochemical lake model (including literature review of processes). SMHI RH Report No. 16, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, 69 pp.
Pers, B.C. (2003). BIOLA - biogeochemical lake model - Manual. SMHI Hydrologi Rapport No. 91, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, 121 pp.
Pers, B.C., and I. Persson (2003). Comparison of a biogeochemical model in different lakes. Nordic Hydrology, 34(5), pp.
Ahlkrona, M. (2002). Phosphorus in a biogeochemical lake model. SMHI RH Report No. 17, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, 56 pp.
V. Further information in the World-Wide-Web
VI. Additional remarks
The model was developed for eutrophic lakes to be used for management scenarios.
Last review of this document by: : Mon Dec 1 16:33:46 2003
Status of the document: Contributed by Charlotta Pers
last modified by
Joachim Benz Tue Dec 2 13:13:56 CET 2003