1. General Model Information
Name: Coupled heat and mass transfer model for soil-plant-atmosphere system
Main medium: terrestrial
Main subject: hydrology, biogeochemistry, meteorology
Organization level: Ecosystem, Landscape
Type of model: partial differential equations (finite differences,1D)
Main application: research
Keywords: water, heat, nitrogen, carbon, atmosphere, plant, soil, snow, frost, forest, agriculture, local and regional scale, greenhouse gas emissions, climate change impacts, Darcy's law, Fourier's law
Royal Institute of Technology, KTH
Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering
Phone: 46 8 790 82 86
Fax: 46 8 411 07 75
Per-Erik Jansson, Henrik Eckersten, David Gustafsson, David Moon, Lars-Christer Lundin, Holger Johnsson, Lisbet Lewan, Sven Halldin
To quantify and increase the understanding concerning basic hydrological
and biological processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system.
The model simulates soil water and heat processes in many type of soils;
bare soils or soils covered by vegetation. The basic structure of the
model is a depth profile of the soil. Processes such as snow-melt, interception
of precipitation and evapotranspiration are examples of important interfaces
between soil and atmosphere. Two coupled differential equations for water
and heat flow represent the central part of the model. These equations
are solved with an explicit numerical method. The basic assumptions behind
these equations are very simple:
· (i) The law of conservation of mass and energy and
· (ii) flows occur as a result of gradients in water potential
(Darcy's Law) or temperature (Fourier's law).
The calculations of water and heat flows are based on soil properties
such as: the water retention curve, functions for unsaturated and saturated
hydraulic conductivity, the heat capacity including the latent heat at
thawing/melting and functions for the thermal conductivity. The most important
plant properties are: development of vertical root distributions, the
surface resistance for water flow between plant and atmosphere during
periods with a non limiting water storage in the soil, how the plants
regulate water uptake from the soil and transpiration when stress occurs,
how the plant cover influences both aerodynamic conditions in the atmosphere
and the radiation balance at the soil surface.
All of the soil-plant-atmosphere system properties are represented as
parameter values. Meteorological data are driving variables to the model.
Most important of those are precipitation and air temperature but also
air humidity, wind speed and cloudiness are of great interest. Results
of a simulation are such as: temperature, content of ice, content of unfrozen
water, water potential, vertical and horizontal flows of heat and water,
water uptake by roots, storages of water and heat, snow depth, water equivalent
of snow, frost depth, surface runoff, drainage flow and deep percolation
to ground water.
In addition to the water and heat conditions also the plant dynamics
and related turnover of nitrogen and carbon may be simulated. The abiotic
and biotic processes may be linked in different ways also to handle the
feedback between the physical driving forces and the plant development.
A full technical description of the model is available as an Acrobat file.
II. Technical Information
Operating System(s): Windows 95, NT, 2000
Programming Language(s): MS C++, fortran90
Available on personal request
see: CoupModel documentation and major references
see: CoupModel documentation and major references
III. Mathematical Information
see: CoupModel documentation and major references
Water, heat, Carbon, Nitrogen, Salt
Varies with application
Varies with application
Alavi,G. 1995. Radial stem growth and transpiration of Norway spruce in relation to soil water availability. Communications 95:8, 42 p.
Alavi, G. 1995. Radial stemgrowth of Norway spruce in relation to spatial variation in soil moisture conditions. Scand. J. of Forest Research. (In press)
Alavi, G. & Jansson, P.-E. 1995. Transpiration and soil moisture dynamics. for spruce stands of different canopy densities and water availability. In: Nilsson, L-O., Hüttl, R. F., Johansson, U.T. and Mathy, P. (eds). Nutrient Uptake and Cycling in Forest Ecosystem. Ecosystem research report 21:41-51. Luxemburg, ISBN 92-826-9416-X
Alvenäs, G. 1994. The interaction between soil moisture and surface conditions. In Persson. R. (ed.) Proceedings of NJF-seminar no 247: Agrohydrology and nutrient balances, October 18-20, 1994, Uppsala, Sweden. p.93. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Division of Agricultural Hydrotechnics, Communications 94:5.
Alvenäs, G., Johnsson, H. & Jansson, P.E. (1986). Meteorological conditions and soil climate of four cropping systems: Measurements and simu lations from the project ^ÔEcology of Arable Andersson, J. 1991. Avdunstning från energiskog. Nödvändig detaljeringsgrad i modellansättningen. Division of Hydrology, Report Series A 52, Uppsala University, Department of Hydrology, 54 pp.
Alvenäs, G & Marstorp, H. 1993. Effect of a ryegrass catch crop on soil inorganic-N content and nitrate leaching. Swedish J.agric Res., 23:3-14. Alvenäs, G. & Jansson, P.-E. 1997. Model for evaporation, moisture and temperature of bare soil: calibration and sensitivity analysis. Agric. For. Met., 88: 47-56.
Blombäck, K., Stähli, M. and Eckersten, H. 1995. Simulation of water and nitrogen flows and plant growth for a winter wheat stand in central Germany, Ecological Modelling, 81:157-167.
Borg, G. Ch. & Jansson, P-E. 1991. Simulation of moisture and temperature conditions in a clay arable soil, STRIAE, University of Uppsala (in press)
Borg, G. Ch., Andersson, B.I., Hultberg, H. 1995. Modelling the effects of changing climate on the hydrological and thermal properties in soil. In: Global change and Arctic terrestrial ecosystems, Proceedings of Papers Contributed to the International Conference, 21-26 August 1993, Oppdal, Norway, European Commission, DG- X11, Brussels, EUR 15519 EN: 255-261.
Bouten, W. & Jansson, P-E. 1995. Water balance of the Solling spruce stand as simulated with various forest-soil-atmosphere models. Ecological Modelling, 83: 245-253.
Bergström, L. & Jarvis, N. 1991. Prediction of nitrate leaching losses from arable land under different fertilization intensities using the SOIL/SOILN models. Soil Use and Management 7:79-85.
Blombäck, K. 1994. Simulation of grass growth and its influence on soil mineral nitrogen. NJF-seminar 245. The use of catch or cover crops to reduce leaching and erosion. Ar/Knivsta, Sverige, 3-4 oktober 1994. NJF-utredningar/ rapporter no. 99.
Blombäck, K. 1994. Grass growth and its influence on soil mineral nitrogen. A simulation study. In Persson, R. (ed.) Proceedings of NJF-seminar no 247: Agrohydrology and nutrient balances, October 18-20, 1994, Uppsala, Sweden, p.115. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Division of Agricultural Hydrotechnics, Communications 94:5.
Botterweg, P.F. 1988. The SOIL-CREAMS model to simulate soil and chemical losses from agricultural areas. Proceedings of the International Symposium on water quality modeling of argricultural non-point sources. 1988, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, Donn. G. Decoursey (ed). ARS-81
Botterweg, P.F. 1989. The SOIL/CREAMS model used to estimate snowmelt induced erosion, Landschaftsgenese und Landschaftökologie, 16:7-8.
Botterweg, P.F. 1989. Utprovning og tilpassing av stofftapmodeller for landbruksarealer. GEFO rapport, Ås, Norge, 31 pp.
Botterweg, P.F. 1990. The effect of frozen soil on erosion - a model approach. In: Cooley, K.R. (ed.), Proceeding, International Symposium Frozen Soil Impacts on Agricultural, Range and Forest Lands, Spokane, Washington, 21-22 march 1990, CCREL Special Report 90-1, p 135-144
Destouni, G. 1991. Applicability of the Steady State Flow Assumption for Solute Advection in Field Soils. Water Resources Research, 27(8), 2129-2140. Dressie, Z. 1987. Recharge and Soil Water Studies Using different Models and Measurement Methods. PhD thesis, Uppsala Universitet, Avd. f hydrologi, Rep A no 2 and 39
Eckersten, H. & Jansson, P-E. 1991. Modelling water flow, nitrogen uptake and production for wheat. Fertilizer Research 27:313-329.
Eckersten, H., Gärdenäs, A. & Jansson, P-E. 1995. Modelling Seasonal Nitrogen, Carbon, Water and Heat Dynamics of the Solling Spruce Stand. Ecological Modelling, 83: 119-129 .
Espeby, B. 1989. Water flow in a forested till slope. - field studies and physically based modelling. PhD thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, Dept. of Land and Water Resources, Rep. Trita-Kut No. 1052., 33 pp.
Espeby, B. 1992. Coupled simulations of water flow from a field-investigated glacial till slope using a quasi-two-dimensional water and heat model with bypass flow. Journal of Hydrology, 131:105-132.
Grip, H., Halldin, S., Jansson, P-E., Lindroth, A., Noren, B.,Perttu, K. 1979. Discrepancy between energy and water balance estimates of evapotranspiration. - In: S. Halldin (ed.) Comparison of Forest Water and Energy Exchange Models. Society for Ecological Modelling, Copenhagen, 237-255.
Gustafson, A. 1987. Water discharge and Leaching of Nitrate, PhD thesis, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Ekohydrologi 22. Gustafson, A. 1987. Simulation of water discharge rates from a clay-till soil over a ten year period. Journal of Hydrology,92: 263-274.
Gärdenäs, A.I. & Jansson, P-E 1995. Simulated water balance of Scots pine stands in Sweden for different climate change scenarios. Journal of Hydrology, 166: 107-125.
Halldin, S.,Jansson, P-E.,Lundkvist, H. 1979. Ecological effects of long-term soil heat pump use. In: Proc. Nordic Symp. Earth Heat Pump Systems, Suppl. ,14-23. Gothenburg: Chalmers University of Technology
Halldin, S. 1980. SOIL water and heat model. I. Syntheses of physical processes. - Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Abstract of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science 567, 26 pp.
Haugen, L-E., Jansson, P-E., Konovalov, N. & Uhlen G. 1991. Simulation of surface runoff and pipe drainage from a field lysimeter on cultivated soil at Ås, Norway, 1973-81. Norwegian Journal of Agricultural Sciences.
Jansson, P-E. 1980. SOIL water and heat model. II. Field studies and applications. - Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Abstract of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science 568, 26 pp.
Jansson, P-E. 1981. SOIL water and heat model, applied to Möhlin forest. - Proc. from an IUFRO workshop in Birmensdorf, Switzerland, August 1979.12 pp.
Jansson, P-E. 1984. Vattnets passage genom den omättade zonen. i Proceedings från IHP symposium: Vattnet i det terrestra ekosystemet. NFR^Òs kommitte för hydrologi, Rep. 58:43-54
Jansson, P-E. 1986. The Importance of Soil Properties when Simulating Water Dynamics for an Agricultural Crop-Soil System. Presented at the NHP-seminar on Water in the Unsaturated zone,
Jansson, P-E. 1987. Simulated soil temperature and moisture at a clearcutting in central Sweden. Scand. J. For. Res. 2:127-140
Jansson, P-E. 1987. SOIL water and heat model. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Fakta no. 3, 4 pp.
Jansson, P-E. 1991. SOIL model. User^Òs manual. Division of Agricultural Hydrotechnics, Communicatins 91:7, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala. 69 pp.
Jansson Per-Erik, Cienciala Emil, Grelle Achim, Kellner Erik, Lindahl Anna, Lundblad Mattias, Simulated evapotranspiration from the Norunda forest stand during the growing season of a dry year, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology (98-99)1-4 (1999): 621-628
Jansson, P-E. & Gustafson, A. 1987. Simulation of surface runoff and pipe discharge from an agricultural soil in northern Sweden, Nordic Hydrology 18:151-166
Jansson, P-E. & Halldin, S. 1979. Model for the annual water and energy flow in a layered soil. In: S. Halldin (ed.) Comparison of Forest and Energy Exchange Models. Society for Ecological Modelling, Copenhagen, 145-163.
Jansson, P-E. & Halldin, S. 1980. SOIL water and heat model. Technical description. - Swedish Coniferous Forest Project, Tech. Rep. 26, 81 pp. Uppsala: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Jansson, P-E. & Reurslag, A. 1991. Climatic influence on litter decomposition: methods and some results on a NW-European transect. In: Jeffers, J. (ed.) Proceedings from First European Symposium on Terrestrial Ecosystems: Forests and Woodlands,Florence,20-24 May, 1991.
Jansson, P-E. & Thoms -Hjärpe, C. 1986. Simulated and measured soil water dynamics of unfertilized and fertilized barley. Acta Agric Scand 36:162-172.
Jansson,P-E. & Lundin L-C., 1984. Fysikaliska effekter av ytjordvärmeuttag. Simulerade uttag för olika marker och klimat. Byggforskningsrådet R50, 84s.
Johansson, P-O. 1986. Diurnal groundwater level fluctuations in sandy till - A model analysis. Journal of Hydrology, 87:125-134.
Johansson, P-O. 1987a. Estimation of ground water recharge in sandy till with two different methods using groundwater level fluctuations. Journal of Hydrology, 90:183-198.
Johansson, P-O. 1987b. Methods for estimation of direct natural groundwater recharge in humid climates - with examples from sandy till aquifers in southeastern Sweden. PhD thesis, KTH, Trita-Kut 1045.
Johnsson, H. & Jansson, P-E., 1991. Water balance and soil moisture dynamics of field plots with barley and grass ley. Journal of Hydrology, 129:149-173.
Johnsson, H. & Lundin, L-C. 1991. Surface runoff and soil water percolation as affected by snow and soil frost. Journal of Hydrology, 122:141-159.
Kätterer, T. & Andren, O. 1995 Measurements and simulations of heat and water balance components in a clay soil cropped with winter wheat under drought stress or daily irrigation and fertilization. Irrigation Science, 16:65-73.
Lee, Y.H. , Hultberg, H., Svedrup, H. & G. Ch. Borg, 1995. Are ion exchange processes important in controlling the cation chemistry of soil- and runoff waters? Water, Air and Soil Pollution 85: 1819-1824.
Lewan, E. 1993. Evaporation and discharge from arable land with cropped or bare soil during winter. Measurements and simulations. Agricultural and forest meteorology, 64:131-159.
Lewan, E. 1994. Effects of a catch crop on leaching of nitrogen from a sandy soil: Simulations and measurements. Plant and Soil, 166:137-152.
Lewan, L. 1996. Evaporation, Discharge and Nitrogen Leaching from a Sandy Soil in Sweden. Simulations and Measurements at Different Scales in Space and Time. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Department of Soil Sciences. Reports and Dissertations 27, 27p. + 4 papers
Lundin, L-C. 1985. Simulated physical effects of shallow soil heat extraction. Cold Reg. Sci. Tech. 11:45-61.
Lundin, L-C. 1989. Water and heat flows in frozen soils. Basic theory and operational modeling. Acta Univ. Ups., Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science 186. 50 pp. Uppsala
Lundin, L-C. 1990. Simulating the freezing and thawing of arable land in Sweden, In: Cooley, K.R. (ed.), Proceeding, International Symposium Frozen Soil Impacts on Agricultural, Range and Forest Lands, Spokane, Washington, 21-22 march 1990, CCREL Special Report 90-1, p 87-98
Lundin, L-C. 1990. Hydraulic properties in an operational model of frozen soil. Journal of Hydrology 118:289-310.
Lundin, L-C. & Johnsson, H. 1990. Modelling infiltration of snow melt water into frozen soils, In: Sigurdsson, G. (ed.), Nordic Hydrological Conference 1990. Nordisk NHP-rapport nr 26, Norrköping, pp. 53-62.
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McGechan, M.B. and Wu, L., 1998. Environmental and economic implications of some slurry management options. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research (in press).
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Persson, G & Lindroth, A. 1994. Simulating evaporation from short-rotation forest: variations within and between seasons. Journal of Hydrology 156: 21-45
Persson, G. 1995. Water balance of willow Stands in Sweden. Field Studies and Model Applications. . Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Department of Soil Sciences. Reports and Dissertations 20, 27p. + 5 papers
Persson, G. & Jansson, P-E. 1989. Simulated water balance of a willow stand on a clay soil. In: Simulation of Growth and Profitability of a Willow Energy Forest, Kowalik, P. & Perttu, K. (eds), Wageningen, pp. 147-162.
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Schelde, K., Thomsen, A., Heidmann, T, Schjønning, P & Jansson, P-E. 1998. Diurnal fluctuations of water and heat flows in a bare soil. Water Resources Research 34: 2919-2929.
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Stähli, M., Jansson, P.-E. & Lundin, L.-C. 1995. Preferential water flow in partly frozen soil - a two -domain model approach, in: Krauss, T.W. & Carroll, T.R. International GEWEX Workshop on Cold-Season/Region Hydrometeorology, Summary Report and Proceedings, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 22-26 May 1995, IGPO Publication Series No.15.
Stähli, M., Jansson, P-E. and Lundin, L-C. 1996. Preferential water flow in a frozen soil - a two-domain model approach, Hydrological Processes, 10:1305-1316.
Stähli, M. & Jansson, P.-E. 1998. 'Test of two SVAT snow submodels during different winter conditions. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 92:29-41.
Stähli, M., Jansson, P.-E. & Lundin, L.-C. 1999. Soil moisture redistribution and infiltration in frozen sandy soils. Water Resources Research, 35 (1): 95-103.
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Thunholm, B., Lundin, L-C., Lindell, S. 1989. Infiltration into a frozen heavy clay soil. Nordic Hydrology, 20: 153-166.
Thunholm, B. 1990. Temperature and Freezing in Agricultural Soils as Realted to Soil Properties and Boundary Conditions. PhD Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Soil Sciences, Reports and Dissertations: 7, 26 p.
Thunholm, B. 1990. A comparison of measured and simulated soil temperature using air temperature and soil surface energy balance as boundary conditions. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 53:59-72.
Thunholm, B. & Lundin, L-C. 1990. Infiltration into a seasonally frozen soil, In: Cooley, K.R. (ed.), Proceeding, International Symposium Frozen Soil Impacts on Agricultural, Range and Forest Lands, Spokane, Washington, 21-22 march 1990, CCREL Special Report 90-1, p 156-160
Wu, L. and McGechan, M.B., 1998a. A review of carbon and nitrogen processes in four soil nitrogen dynamics models. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research (in press).
Wu, L., McGechan, M.B., Lewis, D.R., Hooda, P.S. and Vinten, A.J.A., 1998. Parameter selection and testing the soil nitrogen dynamics model SOILN. Soil Use and Management (in press).
Wu, L. and McGechan, M.B., 1998b. Simulation of biomass, carbon and nitrogen accumulation in grass to link with a soil nitrogen dynamics model. Grass and Forage Science (in press).
V. Further information in the World-Wide-Web
VI. Additional remarks
The model has been developed within large interdisciplinary projects in Sweden. Many users and steps of development from 1975.
Last review of this document by:
Status of the document: Contributed by Per-Erik Jansson , Sun Aug 27 20:14:11 2000
last modified by
Joachim Benz Mon Dec 12 16:00:55 CET 2005