1. General Model Information

Name: Coupled heat and mass transfer model for soil-plant-atmosphere system

Acronym: COUPMODEL


Main medium: terrestrial
Main subject: hydrology, biogeochemistry, meteorology
Organization level: Ecosystem, Landscape
Type of model: partial differential equations (finite differences,1D)
Main application: research
Keywords: water, heat, nitrogen, carbon, atmosphere, plant, soil, snow, frost, forest, agriculture, local and regional scale, greenhouse gas emissions, climate change impacts, Darcy's law, Fourier's law

Contact:

Per-Erik Jansson
Royal Institute of Technology, KTH
Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering
Phone: 46 8 790 82 86
Fax: 46 8 411 07 75
email: pej@kth.se
Homepage: http://www.lwr.kth.se/Personal/personer/jansson_per-erik/

Author(s):

Per-Erik Jansson, Henrik Eckersten, David Gustafsson, David Moon, Lars-Christer Lundin, Holger Johnsson, Lisbet Lewan, Sven Halldin

Abstract:

Purpose
To quantify and increase the understanding concerning basic hydrological and biological processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system.

Brief Description
The model simulates soil water and heat processes in many type of soils; bare soils or soils covered by vegetation. The basic structure of the model is a depth profile of the soil. Processes such as snow-melt, interception of precipitation and evapotranspiration are examples of important interfaces between soil and atmosphere. Two coupled differential equations for water and heat flow represent the central part of the model. These equations are solved with an explicit numerical method. The basic assumptions behind these equations are very simple:

· (i) The law of conservation of mass and energy and

· (ii) flows occur as a result of gradients in water potential (Darcy's Law) or temperature (Fourier's law).

The calculations of water and heat flows are based on soil properties such as: the water retention curve, functions for unsaturated and saturated hydraulic conductivity, the heat capacity including the latent heat at thawing/melting and functions for the thermal conductivity. The most important plant properties are: development of vertical root distributions, the surface resistance for water flow between plant and atmosphere during periods with a non limiting water storage in the soil, how the plants regulate water uptake from the soil and transpiration when stress occurs, how the plant cover influences both aerodynamic conditions in the atmosphere and the radiation balance at the soil surface.

All of the soil-plant-atmosphere system properties are represented as parameter values. Meteorological data are driving variables to the model. Most important of those are precipitation and air temperature but also air humidity, wind speed and cloudiness are of great interest. Results of a simulation are such as: temperature, content of ice, content of unfrozen water, water potential, vertical and horizontal flows of heat and water, water uptake by roots, storages of water and heat, snow depth, water equivalent of snow, frost depth, surface runoff, drainage flow and deep percolation to ground water.

In addition to the water and heat conditions also the plant dynamics and related turnover of nitrogen and carbon may be simulated. The abiotic and biotic processes may be linked in different ways also to handle the feedback between the physical driving forces and the plant development.

Detailed description
A full technical description of the model is available as an Acrobat file.

ftp://www.lwr.kth.se/CoupModel/CoupModel.pdf

 

(SOURCE: http://www.lwr.kth.se/Vara%20Datorprogram/CoupModel/soildes.htm

II. Technical Information

II.1 Executables:

Operating System(s): Windows 95, NT, 2000
Download page

II.2 Source-code:

Programming Language(s): MS C++, fortran90
Available on personal request

II.3 Manuals:


see: CoupModel documentation and major references

II.4 Data:

see: CoupModel documentation and major references

III. Mathematical Information


III.1 Mathematics

see: CoupModel documentation and major references

III.2 Quantities

Water, heat, Carbon, Nitrogen, Salt

III.2.1 Input

Varies with application

III.2.2 Output

Varies with application

IV. References

Alavi,G. 1995. Radial stem growth and transpiration of Norway spruce in relation to soil water availability. Communications 95:8, 42 p.
Alavi, G. 1995. Radial stemgrowth of Norway spruce in relation to spatial variation in soil moisture conditions. Scand. J. of Forest Research. (In press)
Alavi, G. & Jansson, P.-E. 1995. Transpiration and soil moisture dynamics. for spruce stands of different canopy densities and water availability. In: Nilsson, L-O., Hüttl, R. F., Johansson, U.T. and Mathy, P. (eds). Nutrient Uptake and Cycling in Forest Ecosystem. Ecosystem research report 21:41-51. Luxemburg, ISBN 92-826-9416-X
Alvenäs, G. 1994. The interaction between soil moisture and surface conditions. In Persson. R. (ed.) Proceedings of NJF-seminar no 247: Agrohydrology and nutrient balances, October 18-20, 1994, Uppsala, Sweden. p.93. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Division of Agricultural Hydrotechnics, Communications 94:5.
Alvenäs, G., Johnsson, H. & Jansson, P.E. (1986). Meteorological conditions and soil climate of four cropping systems: Measurements and simu lations from the project ^ÔEcology of Arable Andersson, J. 1991. Avdunstning från energiskog. Nödvändig detaljeringsgrad i modellansättningen. Division of Hydrology, Report Series A 52, Uppsala University, Department of Hydrology, 54 pp.
Alvenäs, G & Marstorp, H. 1993. Effect of a ryegrass catch crop on soil inorganic-N content and nitrate leaching. Swedish J.agric Res., 23:3-14. Alvenäs, G. & Jansson, P.-E. 1997. Model for evaporation, moisture and temperature of bare soil: calibration and sensitivity analysis. Agric. For. Met., 88: 47-56.
Blombäck, K., Stähli, M. and Eckersten, H. 1995. Simulation of water and nitrogen flows and plant growth for a winter wheat stand in central Germany, Ecological Modelling, 81:157-167.
Borg, G. Ch. & Jansson, P-E. 1991. Simulation of moisture and temperature conditions in a clay arable soil, STRIAE, University of Uppsala (in press)
Borg, G. Ch., Andersson, B.I., Hultberg, H. 1995. Modelling the effects of changing climate on the hydrological and thermal properties in soil. In: Global change and Arctic terrestrial ecosystems, Proceedings of Papers Contributed to the International Conference, 21-26 August 1993, Oppdal, Norway, European Commission, DG- X11, Brussels, EUR 15519 EN: 255-261.
Bouten, W. & Jansson, P-E. 1995. Water balance of the Solling spruce stand as simulated with various forest-soil-atmosphere models. Ecological Modelling, 83: 245-253.
Bergström, L. & Jarvis, N. 1991. Prediction of nitrate leaching losses from arable land under different fertilization intensities using the SOIL/SOILN models. Soil Use and Management 7:79-85.
Blombäck, K. 1994. Simulation of grass growth and its influence on soil mineral nitrogen. NJF-seminar 245. The use of catch or cover crops to reduce leaching and erosion. Ar/Knivsta, Sverige, 3-4 oktober 1994. NJF-utredningar/ rapporter no. 99.
Blombäck, K. 1994. Grass growth and its influence on soil mineral nitrogen. A simulation study. In Persson, R. (ed.) Proceedings of NJF-seminar no 247: Agrohydrology and nutrient balances, October 18-20, 1994, Uppsala, Sweden, p.115. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Division of Agricultural Hydrotechnics, Communications 94:5.
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Eckersten, H., Gärdenäs, A. & Jansson, P-E. 1995. Modelling Seasonal Nitrogen, Carbon, Water and Heat Dynamics of the Solling Spruce Stand. Ecological Modelling, 83: 119-129 .
Espeby, B. 1989. Water flow in a forested till slope. - field studies and physically based modelling. PhD thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, Dept. of Land and Water Resources, Rep. Trita-Kut No. 1052., 33 pp.
Espeby, B. 1992. Coupled simulations of water flow from a field-investigated glacial till slope using a quasi-two-dimensional water and heat model with bypass flow. Journal of Hydrology, 131:105-132.
Grip, H., Halldin, S., Jansson, P-E., Lindroth, A., Noren, B.,Perttu, K. 1979. Discrepancy between energy and water balance estimates of evapotranspiration. - In: S. Halldin (ed.) Comparison of Forest Water and Energy Exchange Models. Society for Ecological Modelling, Copenhagen, 237-255.
Gustafson, A. 1987. Water discharge and Leaching of Nitrate, PhD thesis, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Ekohydrologi 22. Gustafson, A. 1987. Simulation of water discharge rates from a clay-till soil over a ten year period. Journal of Hydrology,92: 263-274.
Gärdenäs, A.I. & Jansson, P-E 1995. Simulated water balance of Scots pine stands in Sweden for different climate change scenarios. Journal of Hydrology, 166: 107-125.
Halldin, S.,Jansson, P-E.,Lundkvist, H. 1979. Ecological effects of long-term soil heat pump use. In: Proc. Nordic Symp. Earth Heat Pump Systems, Suppl. ,14-23. Gothenburg: Chalmers University of Technology
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Haugen, L-E., Jansson, P-E., Konovalov, N. & Uhlen G. 1991. Simulation of surface runoff and pipe drainage from a field lysimeter on cultivated soil at Ås, Norway, 1973-81. Norwegian Journal of Agricultural Sciences.
Jansson, P-E. 1980. SOIL water and heat model. II. Field studies and applications. - Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Abstract of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science 568, 26 pp.
Jansson, P-E. 1981. SOIL water and heat model, applied to Möhlin forest. - Proc. from an IUFRO workshop in Birmensdorf, Switzerland, August 1979.12 pp.
Jansson, P-E. 1984. Vattnets passage genom den omättade zonen. i Proceedings från IHP symposium: Vattnet i det terrestra ekosystemet. NFR^Òs kommitte för hydrologi, Rep. 58:43-54
Jansson, P-E. 1986. The Importance of Soil Properties when Simulating Water Dynamics for an Agricultural Crop-Soil System. Presented at the NHP-seminar on Water in the Unsaturated zone,
Jansson, P-E. 1987. Simulated soil temperature and moisture at a clearcutting in central Sweden. Scand. J. For. Res. 2:127-140
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Jansson Per-Erik, Cienciala Emil, Grelle Achim, Kellner Erik, Lindahl Anna, Lundblad Mattias, Simulated evapotranspiration from the Norunda forest stand during the growing season of a dry year, Agricultural And Forest Meteorology (98-99)1-4 (1999): 621-628
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Johansson, P-O. 1987a. Estimation of ground water recharge in sandy till with two different methods using groundwater level fluctuations. Journal of Hydrology, 90:183-198.
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Johnsson, H. & Jansson, P-E., 1991. Water balance and soil moisture dynamics of field plots with barley and grass ley. Journal of Hydrology, 129:149-173.
Johnsson, H. & Lundin, L-C. 1991. Surface runoff and soil water percolation as affected by snow and soil frost. Journal of Hydrology, 122:141-159.
Kätterer, T. & Andren, O. 1995 Measurements and simulations of heat and water balance components in a clay soil cropped with winter wheat under drought stress or daily irrigation and fertilization. Irrigation Science, 16:65-73.
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Lewan, E. 1993. Evaporation and discharge from arable land with cropped or bare soil during winter. Measurements and simulations. Agricultural and forest meteorology, 64:131-159.
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V. Further information in the World-Wide-Web


VI. Additional remarks

The model has been developed within large interdisciplinary projects in Sweden. Many users and steps of development from 1975.
Last review of this document by:
Status of the document: Contributed by Per-Erik Jansson , Sun Aug 27 20:14:11 2000
last modified by Joachim Benz Mon Dec 12 16:00:55 CET 2005

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