1. General Model Information

Name: Chemicals, Runoff and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems

Acronym: CREAMS


Main medium: terrestrial
Main subject: hydrology, biogeochemistry
Organization level: ecosystem
Type of model: not specified
Main application:
Keywords: soil erosion, runoff, water quality, pollutant transport, field scale, watershed, management, continuous-time, capacity cascade soil water model, Curve-Number-runoff

Contact:

Dr. R. Wayne Skaggs
Professor Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department
Box 7625 Raleigh
North Carolina 27695
phone: +1 919 515-6739
fax: +1 919 515-7760
email: skaggs@eos.ncsu.edu

Author(s):

Foster, G. R., L. J. Lane, J. D. Nowlin, J. M. Laflen and R. A. Young, Smith, S. J., D. E. Kissel and J. R. Williams 1980 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) in conjunction with the Science and Education Administration-AgricultureResearch (SEA-AR)

Abstract:

CREAMS is a field scale model for predicting runoff, erosion, and chemical transport from agricultural management systems. It is applicable to field-sized areas. CREAMS can operate on individual storms but can also predict long term averages (2-50 years). The objectives of the model were: Based on these objectives, since the management practices were usually on a field basis, the size of a field to represent the scale of the model was needed. A field is defined in the context of the CREAMS model as a management unit having 1) a single land use, 2) relatively homogeneous soils, 3) spatially uniform rainfall, and 4) single management practices, such as conservation tillage or terraces
Processes and Approach: The hydrologic component consists of two options. When only daily rainfall data are available to the user, the SCS curve number model is used to estimate surface runoff. If hourly or breakpoint rainfall data are available, an infiltration-based model is used to simulate runoff. Water movement through the soil profile is modeled using a simple capacity approach, with flow occurring when a layer exceeds field capacity. The erosion component maintains elements of the USLE, but includes sediment transport capacity for overland flow. The plant nutrient submodel of CREAMS has a nitrogen component that considers mineralization, nitrification, and denitrification processes. Plant uptake is estimated, and nitrate leached by percolation out of the root zone is calculated. Furthermore, both the nitrogen and phosphorus parts of the nutrient component use enrichment ratios to estimate that portion of the two nutrients transported with sediment. The pesticide component considers foliar interception, degradation, and washoff, as well as adsorption, desorption, and degradation in the soil. Several of the equations developed for the CREAMS model have been used or modified within other models, such as


II. Technical Information

II.1 Executables:

Operating System(s): DOS, UNIX

II.2 Source-code:

Programming Language(s): FORTRAN

II.3 Manuals:



II.4 Data:



III. Mathematical Information


III.1 Mathematics


III.2 Quantities


III.2.1 Input

III.2.2 Output


IV. References

Foster, G. R., L. J. Lane, J. D. Nowlin, J. M. Laflen and R. A. Young. 1980. : A model to estimate sediment yield from field-sized areas: Development of model. In: W. G. Knisel (ed.) CREAMS: A field scale model for Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems, U. S. Dept. of Agric., Sci. and Educ. Admin., Conser. Rep. No. 26. pp. 36-64.
Kinsel, Walter G.(ed.),1980 CREAMS: A Field Scale Model for Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion From Agricultural ManagementSystems. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Conservation ReportNo. 26, 640 pp.
Heatwole, C. D., K. L. Campbell, and A. B. Bottcher. 1987: Modified CREAMS hydrology model for Coastal Plain flatwoods. Trans. ASAE 30:1014-1022.
Heatwole, C. D., K. L. Campbell, and A. B. Bottcher. 1988: Modified CREAMS nutrient model for Coastal Plain flatwoods. Trans. ASAE 31:154-160.
Parsons, J. E. and R. W. Skaggs. 1988: Water quality modeling with DRAINMOD and CREAMS. ASAE Meeting Paper No. 88-2569. St. Joseph, MI 49085.
Parsons, J. E., R. W. Skaggs and J. W. Gilliam. 1989: Pesticide fate with DRAINMOD/CREAMS. Proc. of the CREAMS/GLEAMS Symposium. Sept. 27-29, 1989, Athens, GA.
Saleh, A. R. B., R. L. Bengtson, J. L. Fouss and R. W. Skaggs. 1992: Validating the DRAIN-MOD-CREAMS model in a warm, humid climate. In: D. L. Thomas, A. Shirmohammadi and B. A. Engel (ed.) Application and Enhancement of Hydrologic/Water Quality Models. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin No. 372. pp. 59-74.
Smith, S. J., D. E. Kissel and J. R. Williams. 1980. Nitrate production, uptake, and leaching. In: W. G. Knisel (ed.), CREAMS: A Field Scale Model for Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management System. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration, Conservation Report No. 26. pp 65-87.



V. Further information in the World-Wide-Web