1. General Model Information
Main medium: terrestrial
Main subject: hydrology, biogeochemistry
Organization level: ecosystem
Type of model: not specified
Keywords: drainage, water table management systems, lateral and deep seepage, pipe drainage, irrigation, salt and nitrate movement, plant stress, continuous-time, Green-Ampt-equation
Dr. R. Wayne Skaggs
Professor Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department
Box 7625 Raleigh
North Carolina 27695
phone: +1 919 515-6739
fax: +1 919 515-7760
Initially, DRAINMOD was used as a research tool to investigate the performance of broad range of drainage and subirrigation systems and their effects on water use, crop response, treatment of wastewater, and pollutant movement from agricultural fields.
The specific objectives of DRAINMOD are:
1. to simulate the performance of water table management systems.
2. to simulate lateral and deep seepage from the field.
Following are the model components:
model simulates the hydrology of poorly drained, high water table soils on an hour-by-hour,
day-by-day basis for long periods of climatological record (e.g. 40 years). The model predicts the
effects of drainage and associated water management practices on water table depths, the soil water
regime and crop yields. It has been used to analyze the hydrology of certain types of wetlands and
to determine whether the wetland hydrologic criterion is satisfied for drained or partially drained sites.
The model is also used to determine the hydraulic capacity of systems for land treatment of
The model has been successfully tested and applied in wide variety of geographical and soils
conditions. In last 12-15 years, the model's capability has been extended to predict the effects of
drainage and water management practices on the hydrology and water quality of agricultural and
forested lands both on field and watershed scale. These extended versions are FIELD&STRM
(Konyha, 1989): Watershed Scale version of DRAINMOD for agricultural lands; DRAINLOB
(McCarthy, 1990): Fieldscale version of DRAINMOD for forested lands; DRAINWAT (Amatya, 1993):
Watershed scale version of DRAINMOD for both agricultural and forested lands; DRAINMOD-S
(Kandil, 1992): SALT version of DRAINMOD for field scale lands; DRAINMOD-N (Breve, 1994):
Nitrogen version of DRAINMOD for field scale lands.
- 1. Precipitation (hourly data is suited).
- 2. Infiltration: the Green-Ampt equation is used to compute infiltration.
- 3. Surface drainage: The average depth of depression storage which must be satisfied
- 4. Subsurface drainage: The rate of subsurface water movement into drain tubes or
- 5. Subirrigation
- 6. Evapotranspiration
- 7. Soil water distribution
- 8. Rooting depth
Author of the abstract:
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering
II. Technical Information
Operating System(s): available in the "pc"-version, please contact Dr. R. Wayne Skaggs DOS for running DRAINMOD under unix look at: Running DRAINMOD on the NCSU Eos System
Programming Language(s): BASIC and FORTRAN
III. Mathematical Information
Freeze, R.A. 1971. Three-dimensional, transient, saturated- unsaturated flow in a ground water basin. Water Resour. Res., 7:347-366 Skaggs, R. W. 1990. DRAINMOD User` s Manual. North Carolina State University, Raleigh Skaggs, R.W. 1980. DRAINMOD Reference Report - Methods for design and evaluation of drainage-water management systems for soils with high water tables. USDA SCS, South National Technical Center Texas. Parsons, J. E., R. W. Skaggs and J. W. Gilliam. 1989: Pesticide fate with DRAINMOD/ CREAMS. Proc. of the CREAMS/GLEAMS Symposium. Sept. 27-29, 1989, Athens, GA. Saleh, A. R. B., R. L. Bengtson, J. L. Fouss and R. W. Skaggs. 1992: Validating the DRAIN- MOD-CREAMS model in a warm, humid climate. In: D. L. Thomas, A. Shirmohammadi and B. A. Engel (ed.) Application and Enhancement of Hydrologic/Water Quality Models. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin No. 372. pp. 59-74.
For a complete reference list look at: Papers on development and testing of drainmod
V. Further information in the World-Wide-Web
North Carolina State University: DRAINMOD or DRAINMOD
VI. Additional remarks
Last review of this document by: T. Gabele: 07.07. 1997 -
Status of the document:
last modified by
Tobias Gabele Wed Aug 21 21:44:41 CEST 2002