1. General Model Information

Name: Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance

Acronym: HELP

Main medium: terrestrial
Main subject: hydrology
Organization level: ecosystem
Type of model: not specified
Main application: decision support/expert system, research
Keywords: hydrology, water balance, landfill, liner system, cover system, snow, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, vegetative growth, unsaturated flow, saturated flow, lateral drainage, geomembrane


Paul R. Schroeder, Ph.D.,
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
Waterways Experiment Station (WES),
Groundwater Modeling Technical Support Center,
Tel: 601-634-3709
Fax: 601-634-3707
e-mail: schroep@ex1.wes.army.mil
homepage: http://www.wes.army.mil/el/bios/schroedr.html

German version:
Dr. Klaus Berger
Institut fuer Bodenkunde
Universitaet Hamburg
Allende-Platz 2
20146 Hamburg
phone: 040 / 42838-2006
fax: 040 / 42838-2024
e-mail: k.berger@ifb.uni-hamburg.de

Visual HELP (commercial graphical user interface for Windows 95 / NT):
Waterloo Hydrogeologic Inc.


Version 1: P.R. Schroeder,J.M. Morgan, T.M. Walski and A.C. Gibson ;
Version 3: P.R. Schroeder, T.S. Dozier, P.A. Zappi, B.M. McEnroe, J.W. Sjostrom, R.L. Peyton, N.M. Aziz
Enhanced (German) version: K. Berger


HELP: Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance - Computer Program for Landfill and Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) Design.

HELP is a layered, water budget (moisture routing) model for hydrologic evaluation of landfill performance. Gravitational forces are assumed to be dominant, capillary forces are neglected.
The model accepts weather, soil, and design data and facilitates rapid estimation of the amounts of surface runoff, subsurface drainage, and leachate from landfills.

In the model precipitation is partitioned into surface storage, runoff, percolation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture storage, and lateral drainage using a quasi-two-dimensional approach.
The runoff is computed using the SCS runoff curve number method and percolation by Darcy's law applied to unsaturated conditions. Lateral drainage is computed from a modified non-linearized Boussinesq equation. Evapotranspiration is calculated using a modified Penman method. Furthermore, the HELP model requires as design specifications the number of layers and their description, including type, thickness, slope, and maximum lateral distance to a drain. The HELP model maintains a climatologic data base and default soil characteristics for 21 soils. Landfill systems modeled by HELP include various combinations of vegetation, cover soils, waste cells, special draiange layers, and impermeable barrier soils, as well as synthetic membrane liners and drainage nets. The model includes features to simulate frozen soil effects, leachate recirculation and subsurface inflow, leakage through liners and snowmelt.

Landfill systems including various combinations of vegetation, cover soils, waste cells, lateral drain layers, low permeability barrier soils, and synthetic geomembrane liners may be modeled.
The program facilitates rapid estimation of the daily, monthly, annual, and average annual amounts of surface runoff, evapotranspiration, drainage, leachate collection, and liner leakage that may result from the operation of a wide variety of landfill designs. The model applies to open, partially closed, and fully closed sites and serves designers and permit writers.

The primary purpose of the model is to assist in the comparison of design alternatives as judged by their water balances. The model is sufficiently sophisticated to consider all of the principal design parameters including vegetation, soil types, geosynthetic materials, initial moisture conditions, thicknesses, slopes, and drain spacing as well as climate effects.

HELP Version 3 is a user-friendly computer program that computes estimates of water balances for municipal landfills, RCRA and CERCLA facilities, and other land disposal systems, including CDFs for dredged material disposal.
Version 3 includes a large library of default and user-defined soil and material properties.
A user's guide and a documentation report are available in Word Perfect 5.1 and Adobe Acrobat formats.
The HELP model and model-demo is available (public domain, zip file) for IBM-compatible personal computers at WES Models Page.

The HELP model was developed at the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to support RCRA and Superfund programs.
Use of the HELP model is recommended by the EPA and required by most states for evaluating closure designs of hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities.
More than 2,000 private engineering offices in more than a dozen countries, and greater than 200 offices of federal, state, and municipal governmental agencies, use the model for design evaluation and regulatory permitting actions.
The model is also used for training and continuing research at more than 50 universities.

HELP Version 3.07 reflects the most recent modifications and corrections suggested by independent source code verification, sensitivity analysis, and related activities. Some of the revisions involved cleaning the HELP3O simulation source code and clearing compilation warnings that may yield errors with other compilers. The HELP 3.07 revisions were completed 11/1/97

Visual HELP, a commercial graphical user interface for Windows 95 / NT, has been developed by Waterloo Hydrogeologic Inc.: http://www.flowpath.com.

German Version of HELP 3: An enhanced German version, adapted to and validated under German climatic conditions, has been developed by the Institut fuer Bodenkunde, Universitaet Hamburg, Germany.
Die deutsche Weiterentwicklung HELP 3 D ist beim Institut fuer Bodenkunde der Universitaet Hamburg: http://www.geowiss.uni-hamburg.de/i-boden/fsimhelp.htm erhaeltlich.

Source of abstract:
WES Models Page: HELP-Info and CSMoS Online Model Page

II. Technical Information

II.1 Executables:

Operating System(s): DOS; (Visual HELP: Windows 95 / NT)

German Version: http://www.geowiss.uni-hamburg.de/i-boden/fsimhelp.htm

II.2 Source-code:

Programming Language(s): Simulation and output routines are programmed in FORTRAN 77,
the user interface is programmed in Basic and in parts in FORTRAN 77.

download file (public domain zip-file) on: WES Models Page: http://www.wes.army.mil/el/elmodels/index.html#landfill

II.3 Manuals:

A user's guide and a documentation report are available in Word Perfect 5.1 and Adobe Acrobat formats: WES models
A printed German manual and program version is available (see sections Contact and References).

German Version: http://www.geowiss.uni-hamburg.de/i-boden/fsimhelp.htm

II.4 Data:

III. Mathematical Information

III.1 Mathematics

III.2 Quantities

III.2.1 Input

III.2.2 Output

IV. References

Berger, K. 2002: Potential and Limitations of Applying HELP Model for Surface Covers. Practice Periodical of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Management, Vol. 6, No. 3, July 2002, pp. 192- 203
Berger, K., 2002: Anwendung des HELP-Modells für die Simulation des Wasserhaushalts von Oberflächenabdichtungssystemen. Handbuch der Altlastensanierung, 30. Erg.-Lfg., 2. Aufl., Aug. 2002, Kennzahl 5588, 57 S.
Ramke, H.-G.; Berger, K.; Stief, K. (Eds.) 2000: Wasserhaushalt der Oberflächenabdichtungssysteme von Deponien und Altlasten. Tagung, 8. Sept. 2000. Hamburger Bodenkundliche Arbeiten 47, 302 S. (ISSN 0724-6382, www.geowiss.uni-hamburg.de/i- boden/verein.htm)
Berger, K.; 2000: Validation of the hydrologic evaluation of landfill performance (HELP) model for simulating the water balance of cover systems. Environmental Geology 39 (11), pp. 1261-1274
Berger, K.; 2000: Neues zur Entwicklung des HELP-Modells und zu Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen seiner Anwendung. In: Ramke, H.- G.; Berger, K.; Stief, K. (Eds.): Wasserhaushalt der Oberflaechenabdichtungssysteme von Deponien und Altlasten. Tagung, 8. Sept. 2000. Hamburger Bodenkundliche Arbeiten 47, pp. 19-50
Berger, K.; 1998: Validierung und Anpassung des Simulationsmodells HELP zur Berechnung des Wasserhaushalts von Deponien fuer deutsche Verhaeltnisse. Schlussbericht, 569 S., Umweltbundesamt, Berlin, (out of print).
GDA-Empfehlung E 2-30; 1998: Modellierung des Wasserhaushalts der Oberflaechenabdichtungssysteme von Deponien (Entwurf). Bautechnik, 75: 9, 616-626; 32 ref.
Weiss, W.; Roth, D.; Muehlfriedel, F.; Guenther, R.; Knoblauch, S; 1998: Verifikation des HELP-Programms durch Messungen der Lysimeteranlage Grossobringen. Wasser und Boden, 50: 10, 51-56; 13 ref.
Berger, K.; Melchior, S.; Miehlich, G.; 1996: Suitability of Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model of the US Environmental Protection Agency for the simulation of the water balance of landfill cover systems. Environmental Geology, 28: 4, 181-189; 23 ref. (subject: HELP version 2)
Sophocleous, M.; Stadnyk, N.G.; Stotts, M. ; 1996. Modeling impact of small Kansas landfills in underlying aquifers. Journal of Environmental Engineering. 1996, 122: 12, 1067-1077; 9 ref..
Khanbilvardi, R.M.; Ahmed, S.; Gleason, P.J. ; 1995. Flow investigation for landfill leachate (FILL). Journal-of-Environmental-Engineering.1995, 121: 1, 45-57; 29 ref..
Peyton, R.L.; Schroeder, P.R. 1990. Evaluation of Landfill-Liner Designs. Journal of Environmental Engineering. 1990, 116: 3, 421-437
Peyton, R.L.; Schroeder, P.R. 1988. Field Verification of HELP Model for Landfills. Journal of Environmental Engineering. 1988, 114: 2, 247-269
Markwardt, N.; 1990: Der Bodenwasserhaushalt in Deponieabdeckschichten. Dissertation, Institut fuer Landschaftsbau der TU Berlin, 119 S. (Subject: HELP version 1)

Reports / Documentation:

Schroeder, P.R.; Berger, K.; 2004: Das Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) Modell. Benutzerhandbuch fuer die deutsche Version 3. 4., überarb. Aufl. zur deutschen HELP- Version 3.80 D. Institut fuer Bodenkunde der Universitaet Hamburg
Berger, K., 2004: Das Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) Modell. Technische Dokumentation zu HELP 3.80 D - Änderungen gegenüber HELP 3.07 -. Institut für Bodenkunde, Universität Hamburg, 10 S.
Berger, K., 2004: The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) Model. Engineering Documentation for HELP 3.80 D - Enhancements Compared to HELP 3.07 -. Institute of Soil Science, University of Hamburg, 9 p.
Schroeder, P.R.; Lloyd, C.M.; Zappi, P.A.; Aziz, N.M. 1994. Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) Model. User's Guide for Version 3. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. and Clemson Univ., SC. Dept. of Civil Engineering. 103p.
Schroeder, P.R.; Dozier, T.S.; Zappi, P.A.; McEnroe, B.M.; Sjostrom, J.W.; Peyton, R.L. 1994. Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) Model: Engineering Documentation for Version 3. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. in cooperation with Clemson Univ., SC. Dept. of Civil Engineering. 128p.
Brannon, J.M.; Myers, T.E.; Tardy-B.A. 1994. Leachate Testing and Evaluation for Freshwater Sediments. Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations Program. Final rept. Apr 94. 66p. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS., USA
Brannon, J.M.; Myers, T.E.; Price, C.B. 1992. Environmental Effects of Dredging Program: Leachate Testing of Hamlet City Lake, North Carolina, Sediment. Final rept. Nov 92. 74p. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. Environmental Lab.
Nichols, W.E. 1991. Comparative simulations of a two-layer landfill barrier using the HELP Version 2.0 and UNSAT-H Version 2.0 computer codes. 40p. ,14 refs. Performer: Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA. ; Funder: Department of Energy, Washington, DC.
ADI Ltd., Fredericton (New Brunswick) and Westmorland-Albert County Solid Waste Provisional Committee, Canada. 1991. Assessment of landfill leachate treatment options. Report. c1991. 62p.
Roddy, N.S.; Cook, J.R. 1990. Infiltration experiment for closure cap evaluation at the Savannah River Site. Spectrum '90: American Nuclear Society (ANS) international meeting on radioactive waste technologies, decontamination, and hazardous wastes, Knoxville, TN (United States), 30 Sep - 4 Oct 1990. Sponsored by Department of Energy, Washington, DC. 10p.
Fillos, J.; Khanbilvardi, R. 1993 Fresh Kills Leachate Treatment and Minimization Study. Volume 2. Modeling, Monitoring and Evaluation. Final rept. Sep 93. 419p. City Coll., New York; New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Albany; New York City Dept. of Sanitation.

V. Further information in the World-Wide-Web

VI. Additional remarks

Last review of this document by: Klaus Berger, June 2004

Status of the document: reviewed and supplemented by Klaus Berger

last modified by Tobias Gabele Tue Jun 15 12:07:42 CEST 2004

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