1. General Model Information

Name: High Resolution Biosphere Model

Acronym: HRBM

Main medium: terrestrial
Main subject: carbon balance of the biosphere, biogeochemistry
Organization level: Ecosphere
Type of model: ordinary differential equations
Main application: research, decision support/expert system
Keywords: carbon cycle, climate change, global change, land-use, vegetation fires


Prof. Dr. Gerd Esser
Institut fuer Planzenoekologie, IFZ,
Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32
35392 Giessen

Phone: 0641/99-35310
Fax: 0641/99-35309
email: gerd.esser@bot2.bio.uni-giessen.de
Homepage: http://www.uni-giessen.de/biologie/pflanzenoeko/ag_esser/


G. Esser


The High Resolution Biosphere Model (HRBM) was developed as an instrument to investigate the carbon balance of the terrestrial biosphere, the impacts of the rising atmospheric CO2 level and of climatic changes. It therefore had to meet the following demands:
  1. include the major carbon fluxes and pools of the terrestrial biosphere;
  2. describe the fluxes by means of equations which consider the deterministic relations to the environment;
  3. make the equations valid in the entire span of the environmental variables in the terrestrial biosphere;
  4. include any important indirect effects which may influence the global carbon budget.
The biospheric carbon pools in the model are balanced by the carbon fluxes which are functions of the vector of driving variables. For the purposes of this model, the surface of the Earth is subdivided into grid elements of 0.5 degree latitude and longitude. Only the landmass is taken into account, leading to a total of 62,483 grid elements. The mass balance of the model pools is carried out by integrating the system of differential equations by a 4th-order Runge-Kutta method. The initial pool values necessary to start the model are computed using a fixed atmospheric CO2 concentration. The atmosphere then acts as an "unlimited" carbon source to fill the pools. This "pre-run" procedure may need as many as 5000 model years, a considerable computing time, to stabilize the large soil pools and to prevent model drift in the consecutive model run.

II. Technical Information

II.1 Executables:

Operating System(s): any by compilation

II.2 Source-code:

Programming Language(s): FORTRAN 77
please contact us if you need the code

II.3 Manuals:

High Resolution Biosphere Model, Documentation Model Version 3.00.00

Manual (pdf format)

II.4 Data:

please contact us for further information

III. Mathematical Information

III.1 Mathematics

III.2 Quantities

state variables (pools): rate variables (fluxes):

III.2.1 Input

III.2.2 Output

any state variable and flux on a global 0.5 degree grid and globally aggregated, time resolution monthly or longer

IV. References

Esser, G.; Hoffstadt, J.; Mack, F.; Wittenberg, U., 1994, High Resolution Biosphere Model , Documentation, Model Version 3.00.00.
Mitt. Inst. Pflanzenökol. der JLU Gießen, Heft 2, 68 S.

Witenberg, U.; Esser, G., 1997, Evaluation of the isotopic disequilibrium in the terrestrial biosphere by a global carbon isotope model.
Tellus 49B, 263-269.

Mack, F.; Hoffstadt, J.; Esser, G.; Goldammer, J.G., 1997, Modeling the influence of vegetation fires on the global carbon cycle.
In: Levine, J. (ed.), Biomass burning and global change, Vol. 1, Chapter 15, pp. 149-159 ; MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Wittenberg, U.; Heimann, M.; Esser, G.; McGuire, D.A.; Sauf, W., 1998, On the influence of biomass burning on the seasonal CO2 signal as observed at monitoring stations.
Global Biogeochem. Cycles 12, 531-544.

McGuire, A.D.; Sitch, S.; Clein, J.S.; Dargaville, R.; Esser, G.; Foley, J.; Heimann, M.; Joos, F.; Kaplan, J.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Meier, R.A.; Melillo, J.M.; Moore, B.; Prentice, I.C.; Ramankutty, N.; Reichenau, T.; Schloss, A.; Tian, H.; Williams, L.J.; Wittenberg, U., 2001, Carbon balance of the terrestrial biosphere in the twentieth century: Analyses of CO2, climate and land use effects with four process-based ecosystem models.
Global Biogeochem. Cycles 15 (1), 183-206.

V. Further information in the World-Wide-Web

VI. Additional remarks

Last review of this document by: Tim G. Reichenau and Joachim Benz Thu Aug 22 12:05:14 CEST 2002
Status of the document: Contributed by Tim G. Reichenau
last modified by Joachim Benz Mon Nov 10 16:48:21 CET 2003

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