1. General Model Information
Name: HYDRUS 1D
Main medium: terrestrial
Main subject: hydrology, biogeochemistry
Organization level: ecosystem
Type of model: compartment model, partial differential equations (finite elements,1D), ordinary differential equations
Keywords: water flow, solute transport, unsaturated, porous media, hysteresis, saturated, equilibrium adsorption, solute transport, zero-order production, first order degradation, water uptake, solute uptake, Richards equation , convection-dispersion equation, sink terms, Garlekin finite element numerics, hysteresis in k(psi) and theta(psi), heat conduction, heat convection
U.S. Salinity Laboratory
450 West Big Springs Road
Riverside, CA 92507-4716
J. Simunek, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California Riverside,
M. Sejna and M.Th. van Genuchten, George E. Brown, Jr. Salinity Laboratory, Riverside, California, USA.
HYDRUS is a computer program designed to simulate one-dimensional water flow,
single-species solute transport, and heat movement, in variably-saturated
The program uses Galerkin finite element techniques to numerically solve the
Richards' equation for water flow, and convection-dispersion type
equations for both solute transport and heat movement. The flow equation
considers liquid-phase water flow (no vapor phase transport), hysteresis in
the unsaturated soil hydraulic functions, scaled unsaturated soil hydraulic
properties, and root water uptake. The solute transport equation describes the
processes of ionic or molecular diffusion, hydrodynamic dispersion, linear or
nonlinear equilibrium adsorption, first-order decay, zero-order production,
and solute uptake by plant roots. The equation governing heat movement
considers both heat conduction and convection. The water flow and solute
transport equations currently assume that the flow and transport properties
will not be affected by temperature variations in the system. However, the
heat transfer properties are assumed to depend on both water content and the
fluid flux. Transfer processes may take place in a vertical, horizontal, or
generally inclined direction. A variety of standard and non-standard
(system-dependent) boundary conditions may be considered.
HYDRUS-1D was recently coupled also with the PHREEQC
geochemical code (Parkhurst & Appelo 1999) to create a new comprehensive simulation tool,
HP1 (acronym for HYDRUS1D-PHREEQC) (Jacques and Simunek 2005;
Jacques et al. 2006; Simunek et al. 2006, 2008). This new code contains
- transient water flow in variably-saturated media,
- the transport of multiple components,
- mixed equilibrium/kinetic biogeochemical reactions, and
- heat transport.
II. Technical Information
Operating System(s): Windows
Download form Hydrus (version 6.0) at USDA
Download form Hydrus-1D (version 3.01) at USDA
Download form Hydrus-1D (version 4.xx) at PC-Progress
Programming Language(s): The program is written in FORTRAN 77, which can be compiled and run on any PC compatible computer.
HYDRUS-1D tutorial at USDA
Hydrus-1D tutorial at PC-Progress (see more documents and information at Hydrus-1D homepage at PC-Progress)
III. Mathematical Information
Simunek, J., K. Huang, and M. Th. van Genuchten, The HYDRUS code for simulating the one-dimensional movement of water, heat, and multiple solutes in variably-saturated media. Version 6.0,
Research Report No. 144, U.S. Salinity Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Riverside, California, 164pp., 1998.
Simunek, J., M. Th. van Genuchten, and M. Sejna, Development and applications of the HYDRUS and STANMOD software packages, and related codes.
Vadose Zone Journal, doi:10.2136/VZJ2007.0077, Special Issue Vadose Zone Modeling, 7(2), 587-600, 2008. Download PDF (2MB).
Jacques, D., J. Simunek, D. Mallants, and M. Th. van Genuchten, Modeling coupled hydrological and chemical processes: Long-term uranium transport following mineral phosphorus fertilization.
Vadose Zone Journal, doi:10.2136/VZJ2007.0084, Special Issue Vadose Zone Modeling, 7(2), 698-711, 2008.
Simunek, J. and M. Th. van Genuchten, Modeling nonequilibrium flow and transport with HYDRUS
Vadose Zone Journal, doi:10.2136/VZJ2007.0074, Special Issue Vadose Zone Modeling, 7(2), 782-797, 2008.
V. Further information in the World-Wide-Web
VI. Additional remarks
Last review of this document by: T. Gabele: 07.07. 1997
Status of the document:
last modified by
Joachim Benz Fri Jan 23 20:37:44 CET 2009