1. General Model Information


Acronym: HYDRUS-1D

Main medium: terrestrial
Main subject: hydrology, biogeochemistry
Organization level: ecosystem
Type of model: compartment model, partial differential equations (finite elements,1D), ordinary differential equations
Main application:
Keywords: water flow, solute transport, unsaturated, porous media, hysteresis, saturated, equilibrium adsorption, solute transport, zero-order production, first order degradation, water uptake, solute uptake, Richards equation , convection-dispersion equation, sink terms, Garlekin finite element numerics, hysteresis in k(psi) and theta(psi), heat conduction, heat convection


Walter Russell
U.S. Salinity Laboratory
450 West Big Springs Road
Riverside, CA 92507-4716
Phone: 909-369-4850
Fax: 909-342-4964
email: Walt.Russell@ars.usda.gov


J. Simunek, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California Riverside,
M. Sejna and M.Th. van Genuchten, George E. Brown, Jr. Salinity Laboratory, Riverside, California, USA.


HYDRUS is a computer program designed to simulate one-dimensional water flow, single-species solute transport, and heat movement, in variably-saturated porous media.
The program uses Galerkin finite element techniques to numerically solve the Richards' equation for water flow, and convection-dispersion type equations for both solute transport and heat movement. The flow equation considers liquid-phase water flow (no vapor phase transport), hysteresis in the unsaturated soil hydraulic functions, scaled unsaturated soil hydraulic properties, and root water uptake. The solute transport equation describes the processes of ionic or molecular diffusion, hydrodynamic dispersion, linear or nonlinear equilibrium adsorption, first-order decay, zero-order production, and solute uptake by plant roots. The equation governing heat movement considers both heat conduction and convection. The water flow and solute transport equations currently assume that the flow and transport properties will not be affected by temperature variations in the system. However, the heat transfer properties are assumed to depend on both water content and the fluid flux. Transfer processes may take place in a vertical, horizontal, or generally inclined direction. A variety of standard and non-standard (system-dependent) boundary conditions may be considered.
HYDRUS-1D was recently coupled also with the PHREEQC geochemical code (Parkhurst & Appelo 1999) to create a new comprehensive simulation tool, HP1 (acronym for HYDRUS1D-PHREEQC) (Jacques and Simunek 2005; Jacques et al. 2006; Simunek et al. 2006, 2008). This new code contains modules simulating

II. Technical Information

II.1 Executables:

Operating System(s): Windows
Download form Hydrus (version 6.0) at USDA
Download form Hydrus-1D (version 3.01) at USDA
Download form Hydrus-1D (version 4.xx) at PC-Progress

II.2 Source-code:

Programming Language(s): The program is written in FORTRAN 77, which can be compiled and run on any PC compatible computer.

II.3 Manuals:

HYDRUS-1D tutorial at USDA
Hydrus-1D tutorial at PC-Progress (see more documents and information at Hydrus-1D homepage at PC-Progress)

II.4 Data:

III. Mathematical Information

III.1 Mathematics

III.2 Quantities

III.2.1 Input

III.2.2 Output

IV. References

Simunek, J., K. Huang, and M. Th. van Genuchten, The HYDRUS code for simulating the one-dimensional movement of water, heat, and multiple solutes in variably-saturated media. Version 6.0,
Research Report No. 144, U.S. Salinity Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Riverside, California, 164pp., 1998.

Simunek, J., M. Th. van Genuchten, and M. Sejna, Development and applications of the HYDRUS and STANMOD software packages, and related codes.
Vadose Zone Journal, doi:10.2136/VZJ2007.0077, Special Issue Vadose Zone Modeling, 7(2), 587-600, 2008. Download PDF (2MB).

Jacques, D., J. Simunek, D. Mallants, and M. Th. van Genuchten, Modeling coupled hydrological and chemical processes: Long-term uranium transport following mineral phosphorus fertilization.
Vadose Zone Journal, doi:10.2136/VZJ2007.0084, Special Issue Vadose Zone Modeling, 7(2), 698-711, 2008.

Simunek, J. and M. Th. van Genuchten, Modeling nonequilibrium flow and transport with HYDRUS
Vadose Zone Journal, doi:10.2136/VZJ2007.0074, Special Issue Vadose Zone Modeling, 7(2), 782-797, 2008.

V. Further information in the World-Wide-Web

VI. Additional remarks

Last review of this document by: T. Gabele: 07.07. 1997
Status of the document:
last modified by Joachim Benz Fri Jan 23 20:37:44 CET 2009

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