1. General Model Information

Name: NICCCE - model for cycling of nitrogen and carbon isotopes in coniferous forest ecosystems

Acronym: NICCCE


Main medium: terrrestrial
Main subject: biogeochemistry
Organization level: ecosystems (terrestrial)
Type of model: ordinary differential equations
Main application: research
Keywords: carbon, nitrogen, isotopes cycling, coniferous ecosystems,

Contact:

D. van Dam, N. van Breemen
Laboratory of Soil Science and Geology
Wageningen Agricultural University
PO Box 37
Duivendaal 10,
6701 AR Wageningen
The Netherlands

Phone: +31 () 317 48 2458 / 48 4410
Fax: +31 () 317 48 2419
email:
douwe.vandam@bodeco.beng.wau.nl
nico.vanbreemen@bodeco.beng.wau.nl

Homepage:
http://www.agro.wau.nl/ssg/organis/dam.htm
http://www.agro.wau.nl/ssg/organis/breemen.htm

Author(s):

D. van Dam and N. van Breemen

Abstract:

Contents of the model:
The NICCCE model (Nitrogen Isotopes and Carbon Cycling in Coniferous Ecosystems) is a process-oriented dynamic simulation model for turnover of N and C isotopes in coniferous forest ecosystems. The model is used to interpret results of experiments on nitrogen saturation and reversibility of nitrogen saturation conducted within a gradient of N-deposition in Europe. NICCCE simulates processes such as heat transport, evapotranspiration, primary production, mineralization, decomposition, root uptake, transport of solutes, and fractionation of N and C for coniferous forest growing on a one-dimensional, multicompartment soil profile. Input data include atmospheric, and any experimental input of nitrogen compounds, as concentrations in throughfall, and canopy exchange, global short-wave radiation, precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere (Van Dam and Van Breemen, 1995).

Principles of the model:
Observed and simulated nitrate concentrations in the soil solution both responded quickly to reduced input in an experiment, with N-input in throughfall excluded. Foliar d15N-concentrations decreased more slowly, and were observed to be unchanged over a 2-year period. Due to isotope fractionation processes N values of ecosystem compartments are predicted to increase for systems approaching N-saturation, due to output of nitrate and denitrification products being relatively depleted in 15N. Sensitivity analysis of the model revealed a strong onfluence of the microbial substrate-use efficiency for organic carbon on input/output budgets os N. Factors causing an increase of primary production such as increasing CO2 concentration are predicted to result in decreased nitrate concentrations.

Sorce of abstract: Van Dam and Van Breemen (1995).


II. Technical Information

II.1 Executables:

Operating System(s): DOS 4 as minimum software requirement.

II.2 Source-code:

Programming Language(s): FORTRAN. Quick-Basic (version 4.5) multimodule compiler code.
Charge for the model and documentation: US$ 100. Use of model in cooperation with authors.

II.3 Manuals:

Van Dam,D. and Van Breemen, N. (1995): User guide only as a student report.
Complete model documentation: Van Dam,D. and Van Breemen, N. (1995). NICCCE - a model for cycling of nitrogen and carbon isotopes in coniferous forest ecosystems. Ecological Modelling 79, 255-275.

II.4 Data:



III. Mathematical Information


III.1 Mathematics

General structure of model for primary production:
To view the flowdiagram, click HERE

Rates of processes in NICCCE are generally described by three kinds of kinetics:

in which S = poolsize; dS/dt = rate of process; k0 = zero-order rate constant; k1 = first-order rate constant; km = maximum transformation rate of pool; kS = saturation constant, i.e., concentration of S for which dS/dt = 0.5km.

Effects of environmental variables such as temperature, soil matric potential and foliar N concentrations on the rates of these processes are described using:
f (E1) = 1/(1 + exp(s1(Ea - Eh1))),
where f (E1) is a monotonically increasing environmental effect, Ea is the actual value of an environmental variable, Eh1 is the parameter value for which f (E1) = 0.5 and s1 is the slope of the dose response curve at Eh1.
In case of an optimum response curve the response above the optimum value of the environmental variable is
f (E2) = 1/(1 + exp(s1(Ea - Eh2))),
and the optimum curve is described as:
f (E) = f (E1) f (E2)/MAX{ f (E1) f (E2)}.


III.2 Quantities


III.2.1 Input

a) Weather data used to run the model
b) Soil data used to run the model c) Plant and animal inputs used to run the model
d) Land-use and management inputs used to run the model

III.2.2 Output

a) Soil outputs
b) Plant outputs

IV. References

Bredemeier, M., Tiktak, A. and Van Heerden, C., 1994. The Solling spruce stand - Background information on the dataset. Ecological Modelling (in press).
Koopmans, C.J. and Van Dam, D., 1998 (in press). Modelling the impact of lowered atmospheric deposition on a nitrogen saturated forest ecosystem. W.A.S.P. (in press).
Koopmans, C.J., Van Dam, D., Tietema, A. and Verstraten, J.M., 1997 (in press). Natural 15 N abundance in two nitrogen saturated forest ecosystems. Oecologia (in press).
Van Dam, D., 1995. Application of the model NICCCE to the Solling spruce site. Ecological Modelling 83, 131-138..
Van Dam, D. and Van Breemen, N., 1995. NICCCE - a model for cycling of nitrogen and carbon isotopes in coniferous forest ecosystems. Ecological Modelling 79, 255-275.
Van Heerden, K. and Yanai, R.D., 1995. Effects of stresses on forest growth in models applied to the Solling spruce site. Ecological Modelling 83, 273-282.
Tiktak, A. and Van Grinsven, H.J.M., 1995. Review of sixteen forest-soil-atmosphere models. Ecological Modelling 83, 35-53.


V. Further information in the World-Wide-Web


VI. Additional remarks

Model description


  1. The decomposition of plant and animal debris described by multiple pools
    1. Soluble carbohydrates defined by N content, first order rate constant obtained by fitting relation between N content of plant dry matter and carbohydrates, proteins (hence) cellulose and lignin.
    2. Proteins defined by N content, first order rate constant obtained by fitting relation between N content of plant dry matter and carbohydrates, proteins (hence) cellulose and lignin.
    3. (Hemi) cellulose defined by N content, first order rate constant obtained by fitting relation between N content of plant dry matter and carbohydrates, proteins (hence) cellulose and lignin.
    4. Lignin defined by N content, first order rate constant obtained by fitting relation between N content of plant dry matter and carbohydrates, proteins (hence) cellulose and lignin.

  2. The decomposition of soil organic matter described by multiple pools
    1. Microbial biomass defined by first order rate constant, C-efficiency, NH4-efficiency obtained by fitting obtained from measured data 15N pool experiments and respiration measurements.
    2. Metabolic defined by first order rate constant, C:N ratio obtained by fitting.
    3. Structural defined by first order rate constant, C:N ratio obtained by fitting.
    4. Humic defined by first order rate constant obtained by fitting.
    5. Stable defined by first order rate constant obtained by fitting.
    6. Resistant defined by first order rate constant obtained by fitting.
  3. Factors assumed to affect organic matter decomposition
    • soil moisture
    • soil temperature
    • clay content
    • nitrogen content
  4. Soil layers used in the model
    The model divides the soil into layers distinguished according to profile morphology:
    texture, organic matter, pF curve and water conductivity.


Last review of this document by: Juergen Bierwirth.html Thu Feb 25 17:27:05 CET 1999
Status of the document: contributed by Martina Pletsch-Betancourt, Feb 1999
last modified by Tobias Gabele Wed Aug 21 21:44:46 CEST 2002

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