1. General Model Information

Name: PEsticide Leaching MOdel

Acronym: PELMO

Main medium: terrestrial
Main subject: biogeochemistry, agriculture
Organization level: ecosystem
Type of model: compartment model, ordinary differential equations
Main application:
Keywords: soil,pesticide,leaching,soil temperature,capacity approach, cascade model, biodegradation, root zone


Dr. Michael Klein
fur Umweltchemie und Okotoxikologie
Postfch 1260
D-57377 Schmallenberg, Germany
Phone: +49 2972 302 317
Fax: +49 2972 302 319
email: klein@iuct.fhg.de


Michael Klein


PELMO was developed to estimate the leaching potential of pesticides through distinct soil horizons based on an extended cascade model. Processes include estimating of soil temperatures, pesticide degradation, sorption, volatilization, and estimating of potential evapotranspiration by using Haude equation. The model is an enhancement of the 1984 version of PRZM. Applications to date have mostly involved pesticide leaching scenarios on German soils.
PELMO is based on R.F. Carsel's PRZM-Model (Carsel et al., 1984), but more processes are included because of significant limitations in PRZM. Similar to PRZM, PELMO has two major components: hydrology and chemical transport. While the hydrology component for calculating runoff and erosion is based on the USDA Soil Conservation Curve Number technique and the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (same as PRZM), the calculation of evapotranspiration is estimated by using the Haude equation (Haude, 1952) or by direct input of the potential evapotranspiration. Furthermore, PELMO calculates depth dependent temperature in soil by using daily air temperatures.
Source of the Abstract: American Crop Protection Association (ACPA)

II. Technical Information

II.1 Executables:

Operating System(s): IBM MS-DOS
FOCUS PELMO site: (PELMO Vers. 3.2) http://arno.ei.jrc.it:8181/focus/models/PELMO/index.html

II.2 Source-code:

Programming Language(s):

II.3 Manuals:

User manual available (77 pages) At present, German language only

II.4 Data:

III. Mathematical Information

III.1 Mathematics

III.2 Quantities

III.2.1 Input

Input Parameters: Pesticide parameters include half-life, temperature and moisture correction factors for the half-life, organic carbon (KOC), soil partition coefficient (Kd, Kf). Freundlich exponent, limits for using Freundlich equation, rate, date and depth of application. If volatilization of the pesticide is estimated, vapour pressure, water solubility, and molecular mass are also required. Soil parameters include depth, % organic carbon, % sand, % clay, biodegradation factor for each horizon. Crop parameters include plant emergence, maturation, and harvest dates. Climate parameters include daily precipitation, daily mean temperature, relative humidity in air at 14.00 hr, air temperature at 14.00 hr, and potential evapotranspiration (optional).

III.2.2 Output

Output Parameters: Depth and time dependent concentrations in the soil profile (surface plots and tables); amount of pesticide in the leachate (Line charts and tables); and concentration of the pesticide in the leachate (tables)

IV. References

Fent, G., B. Jene and R. Kubiak (1998): Performance of the Pesticide Leaching Model PELMO 2.01 to predict the leaching of bromide and 14C-Benazolin in a sandy soil in comparison to results of a lysimeter- and field study. Staatliche Lehr- und Forschungsanstalt für Landwirtschaft, Weinbau und Gartenbau (SLFA) Neustadt. Poster Abstract 6B-030, IUPAC Congress Book of Abstracts, London 1998
Hassink, J., Klein, M., Klein A. and W. Kördel (1993): Fate of Herbicides in Soils under Different Types of Land use. BCPC 827-834
Klein M. (1994): Evaluation and Comparison of Pesticide Leaching models for Registration Purposes, Results of Simulations performed with the Pesticide Leaching Model, Journal of Environmental Science & Health, A29(6),1197-1209 (1994)
Klein M. (1997): Statistical distribution of pesticide concentrations in leachate - results of a Monte-Carlo analysis performed with PELMO, Chemosphere, 35, 379-389
Klein M. (1998): Comprehensive tracer studies on the environmental behaviour of pesticides: the lysimeter consept in F. Führ, R.J. Hance, J.R. Plimmer, J.O. Nelson (eds.), ACS Symposium series 699, 246-258, Washington.
Klein M. (1999):Monte-Carlo Analysis Using Pesticide Fate Models, J. Pesticide Sci. 24, 55-59.
Klein, M. and H. Klöppel (1993): Usefulness of models for the prediction of run-off events - comparison with experimental data, The science of the Total Environment, Supplement.
Klein, M., Hosang, J., Schäfer, H., Erzgräber, B., Resseler, H. (2000): Comparing and evaluating pesticide leaching models. Results of simulation with PELMO, Agricultural Water Management 44 (1-3) (2000) pp. 263-281
Klein, M., Müller, M., Dust, M., Görlitz, G., Gottesbüren, B., Hassink, J., Kloskowski, R., Kubiak, R., Resseler, H., Schäfer, H., Stein B. and H. Vereecken (1997): Validation of the pesticide leaching model PELMO using lysimeter studies performed for registration, Chemosphere 35 No 11, 2563-2587.

V. Further information in the World-Wide-Web

VI. Additional remarks

Model Strengths: Comfortable user surface. Use of default values (estimation of leaching for screening purposes). All important fate data which are necessary for the registration of pesticides (sorption and degradation according to OECD standards) can be considered in the model.
Model Weaknesses: Estimation of water flow by using a cascade model is very simple. Estimation of fast flow (e.g., through macro pores) is not possible.
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last modified by Tobias Gabele Wed Aug 21 21:44:47 CEST 2002

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