1. General Model Information

Name: Pesticide and Industrial Chemical Risk Analysis and Hazard Assessment

Acronym: PIRANHA


Main medium: aquatic+terrestrial
Main subject: ecotoxicology, biogeochemistry, hydrology
Organization level: ecosystem
Type of model: not specified
Main application:
Keywords: pesticides, industrial chemicals, ecological risk assessment,GIS

Contact:

U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
Athens Environmental Research Laboratory
Center for Exposure Assessment Modeling
Athens, GA 30613

Model distribution 706/546-3549
BBS 706/546-3402 FTS/250-3402

Author(s):

Lawrence A. Burns, Ph.D. (coordinator)
Athens Environmental Research Laboratory
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Abstract:

Purpose:
PIRANHA is a computer-based ecological risk assessment tool. The system includes a Geographic Information System (GIS) based facility for locating biological resources potentially at risk from pesticides and industrial chemicals, a toxicological inferencing program for species-to-species extrapolation of acute toxicity (TIP), models for predicting ambient chemical exposures in aquatic and agro-ecosystems (PRZM and EXAMS), and bioaccumulation models for aquatic fauna (FGETS). PIRANHA functions under an interactive platform which incorporates soil, crop, pesticide property, and meteorological data bases.

Model algorithms:
(This discussion is directed to the components of PIRANHA that relate to estimating exposure concentrations from agricultural chemicals.) Pesticide transport to receiving waters, via runoff and eroded sediment, is calculated using PRZM (Release 1). The creation of input files are automated by the PRZM Input Collator (PIC) which is an interactive platform that allows the user to build scenarios of interest by selecting the crop, pesticide, geographical area, soil, and meteorological period of interest. Geographical-based data is delineated at the Major Land Resource Area (MLRA) scale. Exposure concentrations in aquatic environments are predicted from EXAMSII (Version 2.94). Input Parameters: Input parameters are those required for PRZM and EXAMS which are found in separate summaries on each of these models. The PRZM input file created from PIC contains default parameters based on the selected geographic region, soil, weather station, pesticide and crop. The user must provide dates of pesticide applications, amount of applied, and depth incorporated, and the climatological period to be simulated. Default values may be changed through menu options in PIC or any standard ASCII editor (run external to PIRANHA). EXAMS input files must be created from scratch or by modifying existing example scenarios. Output Parameters: Output files are those created from PRZM and EXAMS with the additional feature that an output file from PRZM can be created to provide runoff loads directly into EXAMS. Critical Assessment:
Strengths of Model:
Ability to rapidly create and execute PRZM simulations, especially for users who are not proficient with DOS or FORTRAN input file formatting. Linkage of models and data bases. Use of default values provides quick, conservative estimates of leaching potential for screening purposes.

Weaknesses of Model:
Must stay within confines of single meteorological station, or at least same geographic region. Does not provide a way to save frequently developed scenarios. Portions are still under development (e.g., AidEXAMS, full data base development for MLRAs).

Internal Diagnostics: Good, on-line help available

Current Version No.: 2.0

source of abstract: ACPA Modeldatabase (04/1998)


II. Technical Information

II.1 Executables:

Operating System(s): IBM compatible 80386 with VGA color monitor and 16 MB RAM.
Pre- and Post-Processors: PIRANHA runs on the ANNIE Interaction Development Environment (AIDE) preprocessor, which is also used for DBAPE and PATRIOT. Pre-processors within PIRANHA include the PRZM Input Collator (PIC) and PRZPLOT which permits graphical display of annual variations in total pesticide losses, sediment and runoff losses, and precipitation.
Tabular output is also available. Output Flexibility: Little beyond standard PRZM and EXAMS output files(which have their own levels of flexibility).
Graphic Capability: PRZPLOT permits graphical display of annual variations in total pesticide losses, sediment and runoff losses, and precipitation. (The PIRANHA Graphical Display System (PGDS) allows a the user to construct a GIS -intersection of crop growing areas and biological species distribution.)

Known Bugs: Option to view PRZM output file only allows viewing of EXAMS transfer file. Option to edit soil information in PIC is programmed wrong in that the user must select the option not to edit soil information. Option to edit PRZM titles does not work. New simulations from previously created PRZM files based on "GETINP" do not update the EXAMS loading files.

II.2 Source-code:

Programming Language(s): PIRANHA is programmed in ANSI Fortran 77 and also runs on DEC-VAX systems and workstations. Version Control: USEPA maintains strict control of model.

II.3 Manuals:

Users manual is available, but too comprehensive for quick access.

II.4 Data:



III. Mathematical Information


III.1 Mathematics


III.2 Quantities


III.2.1 Input

Pesticide transport to receiving waters, via runoff and eroded sediment, is calculated using PRZM (Release 1). The creation of input files are automated by the PRZM Input Collator (PIC) which is an interactive platform that allows the user to build scenarios of interest by selecting the crop, pesticide, geographical area, soil, and meteorological period of interest. Geographical-based data is delineated at the Major Land Resource Area (MLRA) scale. Exposure concentrations in aquatic environments are predicted from EXAMSII (Version 2.94).

Input Parameters:
Input parameters are those required for PRZM and EXAMS which are found in separate summaries on each of these models. The PRZM input file created from PIC contains default parameters based on the selected geographic region, soil, weather station, pesticide and crop. The user must provide dates of pesticide applications, amount of applied, and depth incorporated, and the climatological period to be simulated. Default values may be changed through menu options in PIC or any standard ASCII editor (run external to PIRANHA). EXAMS input files must be created from scratch or by modifying existing example scenarios.

III.2.2 Output

Output Parameters:
Output files are those created from PRZM and EXAMS with the additional feature that an output file from PRZM can be created to provide runoff loads directly into EXAMS.

Output Flexibility: Little beyond standard PRZM and EXAMS output files(which have their own levels of flexibility).

Graphic Capability: PRZPLOT permits graphical display of annual variations in total pesticide losses, sediment and runoff losses, and precipitation. (The PIRANHA Graphical Display System (PGDS) allows a the user to construct a GIS -intersection of crop growing areas and biological species distribution.)


IV. References

Leng-ML (ed.); Leovy-EMK (ed.); Zubkoff-PL; 1995. Agrochemical environmental fate studies. 410 pp.; many ref.. ISDN: 1-56670-034-5 (book derived from a symposium held in Washington D.C. in August 1992 entitled 'Regulation of Agrochemical Environmental Fate in the 1990s', discussed models: PIC/PRZM, PIRANHA, PRE-AP)



V. Further information in the World-Wide-Web


VI. Additional remarks


Last review of this document by: Juergen Bierwirth Tue Mar 17 10:24:41 MET 1998
Status of the document:
last modified by Tobias Gabele Wed Aug 21 21:44:47 CEST 2002

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