1. General Model Information

Name: Uptake of Organic Chemicals into Plants

Acronym: PLANTX


Main medium: terrestrial
Main subject: biogeochemistry, (eco)toxicology
Organization level: Organisms
Type of model: compartment model
Main application:
Keywords: plant, volatilization, contamination, uptake from soil, xenobiotics, organic chemicals, vegetation,

Contact:

Dr. Stefan Trapp
University of Osnabrueck
Institute of Environmental Systems Research
49069 Osnabrueck
Deutschland / Germany
Phone: +49-541-9692574
Fax : +49-541-969-2599
email: strapp@ramses.usf.uni-osnabrueck.de

Author(s):

Dr. Stefan Trapp

Abstract:

contents of the model
The model describes the dynamic uptake from soil, solution and atmosphere, metabolism and accumulation of anthropogenic chemicals in roots, stem, leaves and fruits. It is transferable to different plant species and most (nondissociating) organic chemicals. The following processes are considered: -diffusive exchange in soil water and air pores to roots, -transfer into rootswith the transpiration stream, -translocation into stems and leaves via the transpiration stream, -partitioning into the stem, -transport into fruits via the assimilation stream, -diffusive exchange between air and leaves via stomata and cuticle, -metabolism, -dillution by growth.
principles of the model
Four compartments are considered, namely roots, stem, leaves and fruits. Reactions and fluxes within each comp. are assumed to be homogeneously mixed. By the mass balances in these comp. follows an inhomogeneous linear system of differential equations with constant coefficients. The partition of the chemical between plant tissue and aqueous solution is calculated by the lipid- (l_p) and the water content (W_p) of the plant and the lipophilicity of the chemical (K_{OW}). The uptake of the chem. from soil solution with the transpiration stream is governed by the TSCF (transpiration stream concentration factor). To determine the diffusive flux between leaves and air, the total conductance (g_{total}) of the exchange is estimated. Metabolism is considered by assuming first order reacti.

II. Technical Information

II.1 Executables:

Operating System(s): MS-DOS Type of computer: PC, 80286 Portability onto other systems: Portable to any computer system that is able to run FORTRAN 77. List of files: PLANTX.FOR (source file) PLANTX.EXE PLANTX.DAT (input data file, plant and concentration scenario) RESULT (output file) PLOT (output file, usuable as input for graphic programs)

II.2 Source-code:

Programming Language(s): FORTRAN 77, a version in C is also available as part of the program package E4CHEM

II.3 Manuals:

Complete model documentation: Trapp, S.; McFarlane, C.; Matthies, M.: Model for Uptake of Xenobiotics into Plants: Validation with Bromacil Experiments, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 13, 3 (1994), pp. 413-422.

II.4 Data:

Chemical: Kow, Kaw, M, degradation ratePlant: several data

III. Mathematical Information


III.1 Mathematics

This is a list of model equations sorted by their characteristics with hypertext links for more details.

III.2 Quantities

This is a list of model quantities sorted by their characteristics with hypertext links for more details.

III.2.1 Input

III.2.2 Output


IV. References

Briggs, G.G., Bromilow, R.H., Evans, A.A., 1982. Relationships Between Lipophilicity and Root Uptake and Translocation of Non-ionised Chemicals by Barley.
Pestic. Sci. 13, 495-504.

Briggs, G.G., Bromilow, R.H., Evans, A.A., Williams, M., 1983.Relationships Between Lipophilicity and the Distribution of Non-ionised Chemicals in Barley Shoots Following Uptake by the Roots.
Pestic. Sci. 14, 492-500.

Campbell, G.S., 1985. Soil physics with BASIC: Transport Models for Soil-Plant Systems Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Gates, D.M., 1980. Biophysical Ecology Springer-Verlag, New York.

Karickhoff, S.W., 1981. Semi-Empirical Estimation of Sorption of Hydrophobic Pollutants on Natural Sediments and Soils Chemosphere 10, Pergamon, Oxford, UK, pp. 833-846.

Kerler, F., Schoenherr, J., 1988. Permeation of Lipophilic Chemicals across Plant Cuticles: Predictions from Partition Coefficients and Molar Volumes Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 17, 7-12.

Riederer, M., 1990. Estimating Partitioning and Transport of Organic Chemicals in the Foliage/Atmosphere System: Discussion of a Fugacity-based model
Environ. Sci. Technol. 24, 829-837.

Schoenherr, J.; Riederer, M., 1989. Foliar Penetration and Accumulation of Organic Chemicals in Plant Cuticles Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 1-70.

Schwarzenbach, R., Westall, J., 1981. Transport of Nonpolar ORganic Compounds from Surface Water to Groundwater: Laboratory Sorption Studies.
Environ. Sci. Technol. 15, 1360-1367.

Thompson, N., 1983. Diffusion and Uptake of Chemical Vapour Volatilising from a Sprayed Target Area Pestic. Sci. 14, 33-39.

Tinsley, I., 1979. Chemical Concepts in Pollutant BehaviourJohn Wiley & Sons, New York.

Trapp, S. and McFarlane, J.C., 1994. Plant Contamination.Lewis, ISBN 0-56670-078-7.

Trapp, S., McFarlane, C., Matthies, M., 1994. Model for Uptake of Xenobiotics into Plants: Validation with Bromacil Experiments Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 13, 3, 413-422.

Trapp, S. and Matthies, M., 1996. Dynamik von Schadstoffen - Umweltmodellierung mit CemoS. Springer ISBN 3-540- 59312-8.

Trapp S. and M. Matthies, M., 1995. Generic One-Compartment Modelfor Uptake of Organic Chemicals by Foliar Vegetation.Environ. Sci. Technol., 29, 2333-2338.

Trapp, S., Pussemier, L., 1991.Model calculations and measurements of uptake and translocation of carbamates by bean plants Chemosphere 22, 327-339.

V. Further information in the World-Wide-Web



VI. Additional remarks

It is possible to couple the model with Multi Media Fate Models or Mackay models level III or IV.

CemoS is distributed together with a book by Springer (see above). Currently, the German version can be ordered. English version will follow ca. 1996

Additional information


Last review of this document by: R. Patzak : 7. October 1997 -
Status of the document:
last modified by Tobias Gabele Wed Aug 21 21:44:47 CEST 2002

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