1. General Model Information

Name: Phytoplankton responses to environmental change

Acronym: PROTECH


Main medium: aquatic
Main subject: population dynamics, hydrology
Organization level: Population, Ecosystem
Type of model: difference equations (1D), rule based,
Main application: research, decision support/expert system
Keywords: Cyanobacteria, reservoirs, lakes, algae, zooplankton, chlorophyll

Contact:

Alex Elliott
CEH Lancaster, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, LANCS LA1 4AP, UK
Phone: 01524 595800
Fax:
email: protechc@ceh.ac.uk http://windermere.ceh.ac.uk/algalmodelling/index.html
Homepage: http://windermere.ceh.ac.uk/algalmodelling/Index.html

Author(s):

Colin Reynolds, Tony Irish, Alex Elliott

Abstract:

The model simulates the dynamic responses of up to 10 species of phytoplankton (from a library over over 100) to environmental variability in lakes and reservoirs. PROTECH models were developed originally to fulfil a commercial, decision-support role in the management of industrial water quality, where plankton growth is an issue. The progressive refinements to the model nevertheless have a robust ecological basis. This makes PROTECH a promising tool for researching plankton community ecology. The model calculates exponents describing growth and attrition, from a base of the maximum growth rates of algal species in culture. Subject to defined thresholds, growth integrates variability in the fluxes of light and nutrients.


II. Technical Information

II.1 Executables:

Operating System(s): MS-DOS

II.2 Source-code:

Programming Language(s): Fortran 77

II.3 Manuals:



II.4 Data:

Preferably daily measurements of: Wind speed % Cloud cover Air temperature Relative humidity Inflow and outflow discharge Nutrient concentrations of inflows (SRP, NO3, SiO2) For validation: Chlorophyll a measurements Species composition Thermal profiles

III. Mathematical Information


III.1 Mathematics

An extensive list of PROTECH papers can be found at: http://windermere.ceh.ac.uk/algalmodelling/contents/Pubs/Publications.htm


III.2 Quantities


III.2.1 Input

Preferably daily measurements of: Wind speed % Cloud cover Air temperature Relative humidity Inflow and outflow discharge Nutrient concentrations of inflows (SRP, NO3, SiO2) For validation: Chlorophyll a measurements Species composition Thermal profiles

III.2.2 Output

Species chlorophyll, zooplankton grazing pressure, nutrient and temperature values for each 10 cm layer in the 1D water column


IV. References

Elliott, J.A. & Thackeray, S.J. (2004). The simulation of phytoplankton in shallow and deep lakes using PROTECH. Ecological Modelling, 178, 357-369.

Elliott, J.A., Irish, A.E. & Reynolds, C.S. (2002). Predicting the spatial dominance of phytoplankton in a light limited and incompletely mixed eutrophic water column using the PROTECH model. Freshwater Biology, 47, 433-440.

Elliott, J.A., Reynolds, C.S. & Irish, A.E. (2001). An investigation of dominance in phytoplankton using the PROTECH model. Freshwater Biology, 46, 99-108.

Elliott, J.A., Irish, A.E. & Reynolds, C.S. (2001). The effects of vertical mixing on a phytoplankton community: a modelling approach to the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis. Freshwater Biology, 46, 1291-1297.

Elliott, J.A., Reynolds, C.S. & Irish, A.E. (2000). The diversity and succession of phytoplankton communities in disturbance-free environments, using the model, PROTECH. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 149 , 241-258.

Elliott, J.A., Irish, A.E., Reynolds, C.S. & Tett P. (2000). Modelling freshwater phytoplankton communities; an exercise in validation. Ecological Modelling, 128, 19-26.

Elliott, J.A., Reynolds, C.S., Irish, A.E. & Tett P. (1999). Exploring the potential of the PROTECH model to investigate phytoplankton community theory. Hydrobiologia, 414, 37-43.

Elliott, J.A., Irish, A.E., Reynolds, C.S. & Tett P. (1999). Sensitivity analysis of PROTECH, a new approach in phytoplankton modelling. Hydrobiologia, 414, 45-51.

Lewis, D.M., Elliott, J.A., Lambert, M.F. & Reynolds, C.S. (2002). The simulation of an Australian reservoir using a phytoplankton community model (PROTECH). Ecological Modelling, 150, 107-116.

Lewis, D.M., Elliott, J.A., Brookes, J.D., Irish, A.E., Lambert, M.F. & Reynolds, C.S. (2003). Modelling the effects of artificial mixing and copper sulphate dosing on phytoplankton in an Australian reservoir. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management, 8, 31-40.

Reynolds, C.S., Irish, A.E. & Elliott, J.A. (2001). The ecological basis for simulating phytoplankton responses to environmental change (PROTECH). Ecological Modelling, 140, 271-291.

Reynolds, C.S. & Elliott, J.A. (2001). Phytoplankton diversity: discontinuous assembly responses to environmental forcing. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 28, 336-344.

Reynolds, C.S. & Irish, A.E. (1997). Modelling phytoplankton dynamics in lakes and reservoirs: the problems of in-situ growth rates. Hydrobiologia, 349, 5-17.



V. Further information in the World-Wide-Web


VI. Additional remarks


Last review of this document by: : Tue Jun 28 10:29:42 2005
Status of the document: Contributed by alex elliott
last modified by Joachim Benz Wed Dec 14 11:31:19 CET 2005

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