1. General Model Information

Name: Simulation of stream temperatures and shading dynamics on a watershed scale

Acronym: SHADE

Main medium: aquatic+terrestrial
Main subject: hydrology, meteorology
Organization level: landscape
Type of model: partial differential equations, ordinary differential equations
Main application:
Keywords: stream temperatures, shading dynamics, riparian vegetation, HSPF,



Y. David Chen, Steven C. McCutcheon, Robert F. Carsel, Douglas J. Norton (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)
John P. Craig, (Tetra Tech, Inc., Fairfax, VA)


To simulate stream temperatures on a watershed scale, shading dynamics of topography and riparian vegetation must be computed for estimating the amount of solar radiation that is actually absorbed by water for each stream reach.
A series of computational procedures identifying the geometric relationships among the sun position, stream location and orientation, and riparian shading characteristics were used to develop a computer program called SHADE.
The SHADE-generated solar radiation data are used by the Hydrologic Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) to simulate hourly stream temperatures. A methodology for computing the heat flux, between water and stream bed was selected, evaluated, and implemented in the HSPF code. This work advances the state of the art in watershed analysis by providing a quantitative tool for relating riparian forest management to stream temperature, which is a vital component of aquatic habitat.

see also: Y. David Chen et al. 1997 Enhancement and Application of HSPF for Stream Temperature Simulation in Upper Grande Ronde Watershed, Oregon.

Source of abstract: Abstract, D. Cheng et.al. (1998).(see ref.)

II. Technical Information

II.1 Executables:

Operating System(s): DOS, IBM compatible

II.2 Source-code:

Programming Language(s): FORTRAN 77

II.3 Manuals:

II.4 Data:

III. Mathematical Information

III.1 Mathematics

III.2 Quantities

III.2.1 Input

III.2.2 Output

IV. References

Chen, Y.D.; Carsel, R.F.; McCutcheon, S.C.; Nutter, W.L. 1998. Stream temperature simulation of forested riparian areas: I. Watershed-scale model development. Journal of Environmental Engineering New York.1998, 124: 4, 304-315; 40 ref..
Y. David Chen, Steven C. McCutcheon, Robert F. Carsel, Douglas J. Norton, John P. Craig 1997. Enhancement and Application of HSPF for Stream Temperature Simulation in Upper Grande Ronde Watershed, Oregon.
Chen, Y.D. 1996. Hydrologic and Water Quality Modeling for Aquatic Ecosystem Protection and Restoration in Forest Watersheds: A Case Study of Stream Temperature in the Upper Grande Ronde River, Oregon. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 268 pp.
Chen, Y.D.; McCutcheon, S.C.; Carsel, R.F.; Donigian,Jr. A.S.; Cannell, J.R. and Craig, J.P. 1995. Validation of HSPF for the water balance simulation of the Upper Grande Ronde watershed, Oregon, USA. In: G. Petts (ed), Man's Influence on Freshwater Ecosystems and Water Use, IAHS Publication No. 230, p. 3-13.
Bicknell, B.R.; Imhoff, J.C.; Kittle, J.L.; Jr., Donigian,Jr. A.S. and R.C. Johanson. 1993. Hydrologic Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF): Users Manual for Release 10. EPA/600/R-93/174, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA, 660 pp.
Jobson, H.E. 1977. Bed conduction computation for thermal models. J. Hydraul. Div Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. 103 (HY10):1213-1216.
Norton, D.J.; M.A. Flood and B.A. McIntosh. 1996. EPA's GATF project: modeling, monitoring and restoring water quality and habitat in Pacific Northwestern watersheds. Poster Paper in Proceedings of Watershed'96.

V. Further information in the World-Wide-Web

VI. Additional remarks

Last review of this document by: Juergen Bierwirth Tue Jan 12 15:42:24 CET 1999

Status of the document:
last modified by Tobias Gabele Wed Aug 21 21:44:49 CEST 2002

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