1. General Model Information
Name: SOIL - simulation model for soil water movement and heat
Main medium: terrestrial
Main subject: hydrology, agriculture
Organization level: Ecosystem
Type of model: not specified
Main application: research
Keywords: agriculture, evapotranspiration, forest, heat, plant-soil ecosystem, precipitation, snowmelt, soil water, turnover,
Royal Institute of Technology
Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Phone: +46-8-790 82 86
Fax: +46-8-411 07 75
The model is renamed to CoupModel - Coupled heat and mass transfer model for
soil-plant-atmosphere system !
contents of the model
The SOIL model was developed to simulate water and heat processes in soils. Itwas designed to: assess the importance of different ecological factors; identify gaps in the present knowledge; formulate new hypotheses; generalize results to new soils, climates and time periods; predict the influence of human management, such as soil heat extraction, mulching, drainage, irrigationand plant husbandry; simulate regulating factors for biological and chemical processes in the soil. It was initially developed to simulate water and heat processes in forest soils. Due to several extensions it is now applieable to any soil independent of plant cover which was possible since the model is based on well known physical equations.
principles of the model
The basic structure of the model is a depth profile of the soil, so that the vegetation covered soil is divided into a maximum of 22 layers. Processes suchas snow-melt, interception of precipitation and evapotranspiration are examples of important interfaces between soil and atmosphere. Two coupled differential equations for water and heat flow represent the central part of the model. These equations are solved with an explicit numerical method. The basic assumptions behind these equations are the law of conservation of mass and energy and the fact that flows occur as a result of gradients in water potential (Darcy's law) or temperature (Fourier's law).
State of model:
Model applications: around 50 case studies; state: validation
II. Technical Information
Operating System(s): any DOS
Programming Language(s): FORTRAN & C
Available on personal request
Manual: Jansson, Per-Erik: The SOIL model (Vers. 7.5): User's manual, 3rd edition, Communications 94:3, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Department of Soil Science (1994), pp. 67.
Complete model documentation: Jansson, Per-Erik: SOIL: simulation model for soil water movement and heat conditions, Report 165, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Department of Soil Science (1991), pp. 73.
Model Documentation and tutorials of Coupmodel: http://amov.ce.kth.se/CoupModel\WinSoil_documentation.html
III. Mathematical Information
This is a list of model equations sorted by their characteristics with hypertext links for more details.
This is a list of model quantities sorted by their characteristics with hypertext links for more details.
Axelsson, B.; Agren, G., 1976.Tree growth model (PT 1) - a development paper
Swed. Conif. For. Pro. Int. Rep. 41 (1976), 79pp.
Brooks, R.H., Corey, A.T., 1964.Hydraulic properties of porous media.
Hydrology Paper 3, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, pp. 22-27.
De Vries, D.A., 1975.Heat transfer in soils
de Vries/Afga: Heat and mass transfer, Scripta Book, Washington D.C., pp. 5-28.
Eckersten, H. & Jansson, P-E. 1991.Modelling water flow, nitrogen uptake and production for wheat. Fertilizer Research 27:313-329.
Impens, I., Lemeur, R., 1969.Extinction of net radiation in different crop canopiesArch. Geoph. Bioklimatol. Ser.B17, 403-412.
Jansson, P.E., 1991.SOIL: simulation model for soil water movement and heat conditions.
Report 165, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala, Department of Soil Science, 73 pp.
Jansson, P.E., 1992.SOILN: simulation model for nitrogen conditions in soils
still to fill in, 421-446.
Jansson, Per-Erik, 1994.The SOIL model (Vers. 7.5): User's manual, 3rd edition.
Communications 94:3, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala, Department of Soil Science, 67 pp.
Kersten, M.S., 1949.Thermal properties of soils
Institut of Technology, Eng Exp. St.Bull, 26pp
Monteith, J.L., 1965.Evaporation and Environment Proc. Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 19, 205-234.
Mualem, Y., 1976.A new model for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated porous mediaWater Resourc. Research 12, 513-522.
V. Further information in the World-Wide-Web
VI. Additional remarks
The fundamental nature of the equations of the model allows the model to be adapted to many different types of ecosystems providing the user has quantitative knowledge of the governing properties of these systems. SOIL can be applied to simulate the heat and water processes in nearly any kind of soil. In coupling it with other models (for example SOILN from the same author) SOIL can be used at a wide range of questions concerning the interactions between nitrogen, soil water and heat, plants, climate and human interventions.
Last review of this document by: Juergen Bierwirth Mon Sep 18 21:38:36 MET 2000
Status of the document:
last modified by
Tobias Gabele Wed Aug 21 21:44:49 CEST 2002