1. General Model Information
Name: Determination of Primary Productivity and Community Metabolism in Streams and Lakes using Diel Oxygen Measurements
Main medium: aquatic
Main subject: biogeochemistry, hydrology
Organization level: ecosystem
Type of model: ordinary differential equations
Keywords: water quality,oxygen,net productivity, night respiration, community metabolism,diel series,water temperature,salinity
U.S. Geological Survey
Hydrologic Analysis Software Support Program 437 National Center Reston, VA 20192
The SWPROD program calculates daytime net productivity, night
respiration, and total community metabolism from a diel series of
dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity measurements. An Odum
approach is used for the solution of the oxygen-balance equation at
a single station in a stream or as a difference between upstream and
downstream stations. Net oxygen production and subsequent community
metabolism of horizontal lake segments are calculated assuming a
one-dimensional model using a finite-difference equation. The
results are useful for general aquatic ecosystem characterization
and as input to water-quality models for dissolved-oxygen analysis
of aquatic environments. SWPROD is a revision of the USGS program
Procedures for defining the diel oxygen relationship utilize
dissolved-oxygen measurements to solve the basic oxygen equation.
The applicability and accuracy of the procedures are limited by the
assumptions. Reaeration is assumed to be constant over the 24-hour
period. Advective transport must be absent or the quantity of
oxygen so transported must be known. No assumptions concerning
daytime respiration are made; therefore, values for gross production
are not calculated. Any accrual or loss of water must be known.
Turbulence must be low enough to permit observation of nighttime
decline in dissolved oxygen. There must be sufficient plant biomass
present to provide a daytime increase in oxygen due to
II. Technical Information
Operating System(s): UNIX download from USGS
Programming Language(s): FORTRANdownload from USGS
III. Mathematical Information
Temperature, dissolved oxygen, electric conductivity.
Output consists of computed production and metabolism results and optional presentation of interpolated data.
Stephens, D.W., and Jennings, M.E., 1976, Determination of Primary productivity and community metabolism in streams and lakes using diel oxygen measurements: U.S. Geological Survey Computer Contribution, 100 p.
Bella, D.A., 1970, Dissolved oxygen variations in stratified lakes: American Society of Civil Engineers Journal of Sanitary Engineering, v. 96, no. SA-5, p. 1129-1146.
Odum, H.T., 1956, Primary production in flowing waters: Limnology and Oceanography, v. 1, no. 2, p. 102-117.
Slack, K.V., Averett, R.C., Greeson, P.E., and Lipscomb, R.G., 1973, Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 5, chap. A4, 165 p.
V. Further information in the World-Wide-Web
SWPROD Home-Page at USGS
VI. Additional remarks
Last review of this document by:
Status of the document:
last modified by
Tobias Gabele Wed Aug 21 21:44:51 CEST 2002