1. General Model Information
Name: Temperate Forest Ecosystem Simulation Model
Main medium: air+terrestrial
Main subject: biogeochemistry , forestry
Organization level: organism, landscape
Type of model: not specified, individual-based
Main application: research
Keywords: forest, ecosystem, CO2 concentration,gap model, forest succession, ecosystems processes, forest response to climate change, scaling up tree-physiological responses.
Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station
240 West Prospect Fort Collins, CO 80526
Phone: 970 498-1315
Fax: 970 498-1010
Predictions of forest ecosystem response to changes in climate and atmospheric CO2
concentration require hierarchically structured process models. Existing forest
simulation models have conceptual limitations that restrict their application to
climate-change studies. A major drawback of forest succession models is that they
often lack physiological details in the simulation of annual tree growth. On the other
hand, aggregated ecosystem models assume spatially homogeneous forests, and do not
account for successional changes in forest composition and canopy structure. The
concept of a new coupled carbon-water-energy-forest vegetation model is presented which
attempts to overcome the main limitations of existing models by implementing a modern
view of ecological hierarchy and a robust approach for scaling ecological processes in
space and time. (Source: Nikolov, N.T. and Fox, D.G. 1994, Abstract)
TEMFES (Temperate Forest Ecosystem Simulation Model) is a model
currently under development at the USDA FS/RMFRES (Rocky Mountain
Forest and Range Experiment Station) Laboratory in Fort Collins, Colorado.
TEMFES is a process-based, predictive, simulation model designed to explore
forest ecosystem response to changes in climate and atmospheric CO2
concentration at different spatial and temporal scales.
The model treats the forest ecosystem as a mosaic of discrete small patches.
On every patch, the model simulates birth, growth and death of individual
Required input data are:
- mean monthly temperature;
- relative humidity;
- total precipitation;
- soil type and texture;
- slope, aspect and inclination; and
- tree species data (33 parameters for each species).
The model provides output information on the temporal dynamics of
forest productivity, species composition and structure. The effects
of dwarf mistletoe are also incorporated into the model. The model uses
both an hourly time step (for physiological processes) and a monthly
time step (for all other processes). The model can examine processes at
the forest gap (0.1 ha) to watershed scale.
Author of the abstract:
II. Technical Information
Operating System(s): DOS
Programming Language(s): Pascal
III. Mathematical Information
Environmental data: Mean monthly temp., relative humidity, total precipitation, and their respective standard deviations; soil type and texture for every 0.3 layer of the profile; slope aspect and inclination, latitude and elevation. Tree species data: 33 species specific parameters to characterize species physiology, life history and morphology.
Temporal dynamics of forest productivity, species composition and structure (size distributions by species, leaf area index distribution over space and by species).
Temporal Scale: Hourly for physiologic and hydrological processes, Monthly for soil organic matter transformation processes; Annual for tree growth.
Nikolov, N.T. and Fox, D.G. 1994. A Coupled Carbon-Water-Energy-Vegetation Model to Assess Responses of Temperate Forest Ecosystems to Changes in Climate and Atmospheric CO2. Part I. Model Concept. Environmental Pollution, 83:1-2, 251-262.
V. Further information in the World-Wide-Web
TEMFES at the CIESIN Database
VI. Additional remarks
Global change implications:Once developed, this model can bereadily used to study the effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on forestecosystems.The model may be particularly useful in studying how different geneticstrains would be affected by climate change because of the detailed informationthe model provides on each tree species. This model could alsobe used to examine the effects of dwarf mistletoe on tree growthand development if climate change affects the distribution orgrowth rate of this epiphyte. Author: CIESIN
Last review of this document by: T. Gabele: Thu Sep 18 1997
Status of the document:
last modified by
Tobias Gabele Wed Aug 21 21:44:51 CEST 2002